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Water used for drilling and making up frac fluids can come from several sources: surface water bodies, groundwater, municipal potable water supplies, or reused water from some other water source (most commonly this is flowback water from a previously fractured well)
A large portion of the Marcellus Shale underlies the Susquehanna River basin watershed. Any water usage within the watershed is subject to oversight by the SRBC. Hoffman (2010) notes, that as of January 2010, the SRBC had data for 131 wells. The total volume of water withdrawn through that date is 262 million gallons, with 45% coming from public water supplies and the other 55% coming from surface water sources. The average total volume of fluid used per well is 2.7 million gallons, with 2.2 million gallons of that coming from freshwater sources and 0.5 million gallons coming from recycled flowback water
Not all of the injected frac fluid returns to the surface. GWPC and ALL (2009) report that from 30% to 70% of the original frac fluid volume returns as flowback. However, anecdotal reports from Marcellus operators suggest that the actual percentage is at or below the lower end of that range. The rest of the water remains in pores within the formation. The SRBC data set described in the previous section shows that about 13.5% of the injected frac fluid is recovered (Hoffman 2010).
Operators must manage the flowback and produced water in a cost-effective manner that complies with state regulatory requirements. The primary options are:
Inject underground through a disposal well (onsite or offsite),
Discharge to a nearby surface water body,
Haul to a municipal wastewater treatment plant (often referred to as a publicly owned
treatment works or POTW),
Haul to a commercial industrial wastewater treatment facility, and
Reuse for a future frac job either with or without treatment.
Chapter 3 describes each of these different processes in more detail and identifies those options
that are actually being used by gas operators in the Marcellus Shale region
Originally posted by SusanFrey
reply to post by UtahRosebud
This is not a frost quake. We have a pond and the bass and bream are getting ready to spawn in it. They won't spawn in freezing water and the pond is 6 ft deep.
Originally posted by Robin Marks
We need a real damn reporter to join us.
I'm probably wouldn't get an email back from Scott Ausbrook because he's going to be inundate. But a reporter could get access. And I got lots of questions that need to be asked and answered.
So, try and make it happen.
Originally posted by mikeybiznaz
reply to post by westcoast
Fine you people can blame your earthquakes on the frozen ground that isnt frozen, you can blame them on Company injecting salt water which if property damage occurs you have a law suite and chances of large quakes dont exist or you can look to man creating then with HAARP you choose your disaster. I dont live there and now I dont care with your attitude ......have a very sleepless night
Originally posted by westcoast
reply to post by trekwebmaster
Please look at THIS seismo. I commented immediately that this quake looked odd...as if there was ground movement...maybe it is just something going on with the telemetry, but you say it felt different than the other quakes too?
Originally posted by berkeleygal
reply to post by elouina
umm, your link is for yesterday
here is the new day