Introduction
In two articles [1], [2], we derived respectively the Universal Gravitation Constant (G) from Planck units and demonstrated that, spacetime and quantum vacuum (QV), are two different spaces. Newton’s equation of gravitation has two components (a constant [G] and a variable mass component [m1m2/d2]) that can be treated separately, since they are independent. As a consequence, gravitation can be considered a combined force, consisting of G (as previously demonstrated to be a QV function) and conventional ‘mass attraction’, the latter produced by gravity fields and/or spacetime geometry according to the corresponding theories. This principle of independence has allowed us to calculate inertia for mutually attracting and/or otherwise accelerated bodies, finding that inertia has a very high value. Its fundamental effect is probably that of marking a clear distinction between fermions (matter) and photons (light), the latter not being affected by inertia.
While “mass attraction” depends only on mutually attracting masses and their relative position or distance, G (a so-called, “non-derivable constant”) can be effectively derived and is found to be the exact inverse of “vacuum mass density equivalent” (5.156x1096 kg/m3), which is come to by dividing the Planck mass by the product of Planck volume and the square of Planck time (the former having already been predicted as an approximate value, e.g. in [3]). This new equation of gravitation resulting from the substitution of G by Planck units reveals that vacuum density (analogous to Zero Point Radiation [ZPR]) affects gravity inversely. This means that, if we were able to increase ZPR, gravity would decrease and vice-versa. In fact, the very small value of G (6.673x10-11 m3kg-1s-2) already suggests that there is ‘something’ that weakens mass attraction. We found in [1] that this ’something’ is ZPR).
The above findings, in combination with so-called "weak gravitation shielding experiments” ([4], [5]), reveal that gravity can be effectively manipulated via QV by using superconductor arrangements.
In our second article [2], we derived the ‘Planck charge’ (generally unknown or as the ‘electron charge’ misunderstood with a value of 1.876x10-18 C) from Coulomb’s Constant (C), corresponding to the charge existing in a QV-Planck volume. By comparing the corresponding QV lepton/photon ratio with the almost equivalent baryon/photon ratio predicted for spacetime by the Standard Model, we found that the former is about 12 orders of magnitude lower, allowing it to be said that under any circumstance, spacetime and QV are two different spaces (even if we corrected somehow for the corresponding ratios, the difference would be still too large to be merely insignificant).
These findings allow us to determine that spacetime is mainly a space full of neutral matter and much light, while the QV is mainly a space full of strong radiation and some charges (virtual pairs), such that both universes are effectively incompatible and ought to exist therefore - even from a theoretical point of view - as separated spaces in the universe.
By dividing the Planck charge by the charge of the electron (1.6022x10-19 C), we obtain an average density of 11.71 leptons per Planck volume, which per definition corresponds to the well-known virtual electron-positron pairs that create and mutually annihilate each other in vacuum. At the very moment of their mutual interaction, approximately 12 entire leptons correspond to 6 particles or strings, what is coincident with the 6 Kaluza-Klein dimensions, attributed to strings.
This coincidence allows the establishment of a direct link between strings and the QV as already suggested by The California Institute for Physics and Astrophysics in its homepage (“It now appears that quantum field theory may be the low energy limit of superstring theory”) and suggests that the QV is the space where strings are physically located. This model would explain the effect known as ‘quantum non-locality’, since strings (in so-called ‘entangled particles’) would interact instantly via the QV in a time that is zero for spacetime observers, since the QV disposes of a different time frame than spacetime because of its different number of dimensions, and therefore QV-time has no meaning to us.
Gravity Manipulation
As already shown in [1], vacuum mass-density equivalent can be understood, per definition, as a Planck mass existing in a Planck volume:
3PPZPlm=δ
()39631058335810159.510220.410177.210616.110177.2−−−−−===mkgxmxkgxmxkgx , (1)
where: δZP = vacuum mass-density equivalent, mP = Planck mass, and l3P = VP (Planck volume). Also see [3] for a parallel derivation.
By substituting G with the corresponding Planck units, we get:
21PZPtGδ= , (2)
and substituting:
2131124439610670.6)10391.5(10159.51−−−−−==skgmxsxmkgxG , (3)
which is equal (to the rounded decimals) to the normal value of G (6.673x10-11 m3kg-1s-2) and demonstrates that G corresponds effectively to function (2), i.e., that G is a quantum-function.
In consequence, Newton’s equation of gravitation adopts the following form by substituting G by eq. (2): 22121dmmtFPZPδ= . (4)
In this equation, we call the above-mentioned independent right component “mass attraction” because it depends only on masses and their relative position. According to the “cause-effect principle”, the left component (G) can be considered a “vacuum reaction” to gravitation, since matter is obviously the origin of any gravitation. (A similar vacuum reaction to accelerated matter is known as Davies-Unruh effect [9], [10] and demonstrates that the vacuum effectively reacts to the presence of matter. In addition, since in eq. (4), δZP represents a vacuum mass-density equivalent, any reaction to gravitation represents a vacuum effect).
The first we observe in eq. (4) is that gravity is inversely proportional to vacuum energy (δZP). In consequence, if we manipulated vacuum energy, we would in parallel be manipulating gravity. Further, if the QV did not exist, ZPR would be zero and according to (4), the gravitational force would be infinite while the opposite would occur if ZPR was infinite (gravity would be zero). In [11], we already mentioned a herewith-related case with regard to the extreme high temperature of the solar corona (up to 2x106 °C) with respect to the photosphere or surface of the sun (only 5,500°C). Probably, the very dense solar photon stream produces “holes” .
The basis of most modern technology is the manipulation of electromagnetic phenomena. Haisch, Rueda
and Putho® (1994a) published a controversial but substantive formulation of a concept proposing an explanation
of inertia of matter as an electromagnetic phenomenon originating in the zero-point ¯eld (ZPF) of the
quantum vacuum. This suggests that Newton's equation of motion can be derived from Maxwell's equations
of electrodynamics, in that inertial mass is postulated to be not an intrinsic property of matter but rather a
kind of electromagnetic drag force (which temporarily is a place holder for a more general quantum vacuum
reaction e®ect) that proves to be acceleration dependent by virtue of the spectral characteristics of the ZPF.
Moreover the principle of equivalence implies that in this view gravitation would also be electromagnetic in
origin along the lines proposed by Sakharov (1968). A NASA-funded research e®ort has been underway at
the Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center in Palo Alto and at California State University in Long
Beach to develop and test these ideas. An e®ort to generalize the 1994 ZPF-inertia concept into a proper
relativistic formulation has been successful. With regard to the goals of the NASA Breakthrough Propulsion
Physics Program we can, on the basis of the ZPF-inertia concept, de¯nitively rule out one speculatively hypothesized
propulsion mechanism: matter possessing negative inertial mass, a concept originated by Bondi
(1957). The existence of this is shown to be logically impossible. On the other hand, the linked ZPF-inertia
and ZPF-gravity concepts open the conceptual possibility of manipulation of inertia and gravitation, since
both are postulated to be electromagnetic phenomena. Whether this will translate into actual technological
potential, especially with respect to spacecraft propulsion and future interstellar travel capability, is an open
question. The (possibly comparable) time scale for translation of Einstein's E = mc2 mass-energy relation
into nuclear technology was approximately four decades. A key question is whether the proposed ZPF-matter
interactions generating the phenomenon of mass might involve one or more resonances. This is presently
under investigation.
INTRODUCTION
In spite of the success of special and general relativity, which embody our best understanding of the
relationship between mass and energy, the fundamental nature of mass has remained a complete mystery.
There are four characteristics of matter that involve some aspect of the property of mass. (1) Inertial mass:
the resistance to acceleration known as inertia, de¯ned in Newton's equation of motion, F = ma, and its
relativistic generalization. (2) Active gravitational mass: the ability of matter to attract other matter via
Newtonian gravitation, or, from the perspective of general relativity, the ability to curve spacetime. (3)
Passive gravitational mass: the propensity of matter to respond to gravitational forces. (4) Relativistic or
rest mass: the relationship of mass and energy expressed in the E = mc2 relation of special relativity. These
are very di®erent properties of matter, yet for some reason they are quantitatively represented by the same
parameter. One can imagine a universe, for example, in which inertial mass, mi, and passive gravitational
mass, mg, were di®erent: : : but then objects would not all fall with the same acceleration in a gravitational
¯eld and there would be no principle of equivalence to serve as the foundation of general relativity. One
can imagine a universe in which active and passive gravitational mass were di®erent: : : but then Newton's
third law of equal and opposite forces would be violated, and mechanics as we know it would be impossible.
Another fundamental characteristic of mass is that objects that possess mass (i.e. matter) are limited to
speeds less than the speed-of-light, c, whereas massless entities such as photons cannot move at any speed
other than c.Link
Originally posted by depth om
This system is the aorta of the US. Fractal universe proof.