Islam's Incorruptible Qur'an Is Corrupt

page: 1
109
<<   2  3  4 >>

log in

join
+65 more 
posted on Aug, 18 2013 @ 09:30 PM
link   
There is a conspiracy in Islam that has so far managed to stay off of the mainstream radar. This conspiracy has been perpetuated to keep its followers obedient, to attract new converts, and to incite fragmentation and separation amongst our human family. The conspiracy is regarding the belief that today’s Qur’an is incorruptible and as pure and perfect as when Muhammad recited it.

The content of this thread was originally meant to be published; however, I have condensed and modified it to upload as an ATS exclusive.

It may take a while to get through this thread, so bookmark, grab a drink, and relax.


 

 



• Part 1: My Personal Islamic Background

• Part 2: The History of al-Qur’an
- Muhammad ibn Abdullah
- Ali ibn Abi Talib
- Abu Bakr as-Saddiq
- Umar ibn al-Khattab
- Uthman ibn Affan
- Abdullah ibn Mas’ud
- Ubay ibn Ka’b

• Part 3: Physical Qur’ans
- Great Mosque, Sana’a, Yemen
- British Library, London, England
- National Library, Paris, France
- Telyashayakh Mosque, Tashkent, Uzbekistan
- Topkapi Palace Museum, Istanbul, Turkey
- False Uthmani Qur’ans

• Part 4: Potentially Lost Verses and Abrogation

• Part 5: Hijazi Defective Script; Not Classical Arabic Script or Kufic

• Part 6: Different Recitations: Ahruf and Qira’at


 



• Part 1: My Personal Islamic Background

I renounced Islam several years ago.

I am a former Sunni Muslim who followed the As-Salaf As-Saalih madh’hab (Salafi School of Thought). The Salafi methodology believes in a strict interpretation of the Qur’an and Islam, based upon the understandings of the first three generations of Islam. First, through Muhammad’s interpretation and example, and then by the interpretations and examples of Muhammad’s direct companions/disciples (Sahaba), and then by the interpretations and examples of the next two proceeding generations who were of direct transmissional chain from the sahaba. Islamic scholarship is built upon understanding the purest interpretation and context of the Qur’an directly from Muhammad’s actions, words, and sayings. Next, in order of decreasing purity are the Sahaba, and then Tabi’un, and then the Tabi al-Tabi’in.

Although I followed the Salafi methodology, I did not isolate myself with Islamic sectarianism. I studied the Arabic language, Qur’an, Tajwid, Tafsir, Hadith, Seerah, Fiqh, and Hikmah under the direct tutelage of a well-known and respected Egyptian sheikh of the Hanafi madh’hab. I learned from muftis of the Majlisul Ulamah of South Africa, I traveled the eastern U.S. visiting various Islamic communities and sleeping in mosques with Muslims of Tablighi Jamaat, and I attended a multitude of lectures and learning workshops hosted by various mosques and sects.

My rapid comprehension of the Arabic language, my ability to memorize Qur’an quickly, my acquirement and comprehension of Islamic knowledge, and my personal character allowed me to move up in the ranks of the Islamic communities that I lived in. In one community I was elected Treasurer and then elected Amir to lead and represent the community. Just prior to my apostasy (abandoning Islam), I was awaiting my conformation to join the “Council of Amirs” in the last community I was involved with. “Young Sheikh” was a nick-name of endearment that the elders gave me, for I accomplished all of this in my early 20’s.

Since leaving Islam, I have never once looked back. The religious superiority complex that once blinded me with notions of “us separate from them” and “Muslims differentiated from non-Muslims” has been lifted, and I now see only fellow humans, and strive towards universal brotherhood based upon love, compassion, and understanding, free from the separations of religion, race, nationality, culture, belief, ideology, wealth, intellect, or class/caste.



+3 more 
posted on Aug, 18 2013 @ 09:30 PM
link   
• Part 2: The History of al-Qur’an



* Muhammad ibn Abdullah *
In the year 610 AD/CE, Muhammad ibn Abdullah of Arabia is said to have received divine revelation from the God of Abraham, through the representative Archangel Gabriel. These recitations, being incrementally revealed over a 23 year period, are known as the Qur'an.



Muhammad was said to have been an illiterate man. Nonetheless, history shows he was no idiot. The Prophet of Islam hails from one of the most wealthy and powerful tribes of Arabia; the tribe of Quraysh . He had a renowned reputation amongst the Arabs as being an honest man of impeccable character. In his youth, he helped resolve the inter-tribal dispute regarding which tribe would have the honor of placing the black stone into the holy shrine of Mecca during a renovation reconstruction. His first wife was Khadijah bint Khuwaylid, the most successful female merchant of the Quraysh. Muhammad later went on to become one of the most influential and successful political and military strategists of all time. Through Islam, Muhammad even designed a totalitarian system of guidelines for nearly all aspects of a society and civilization.

The Qur'an Is Not And Was Not A Book

Because of his illiteracy, Muhammad never penned a single letter of the Qur'an, nor did he ever authorize or approve of any compiled codices. Although some individuals scribed parts of the Qur’an for their own keep-sake, no one had yet compiled the entire Qur’an to writing, and Muhammad did not leave a fully compiled written book upon his death.

In Muhammad's time, the Qur'an was transmitted verbally and memorized internally. In fact, the "Qur'an" that we read in a book or digitally scripted is not the "Qur'an" at all. Qur'an is only Qur'an when recited aloud. When Qur'an is scripted, it is called mus'haf.

Because the Qur'an is composed of an elegant poetic prose, it is easy to memorize, just like the words of a song. The Qur'an was intended, by Muhammad, to be a perpetual oral tradition, much like the Torah She'be'al Peh (Jewish oral tradition now recorded in the Mishnah, Talmud, and Midrash).

In Suratul-Hijr, ayah 9 (15:9) of the Qur’an, Allah says:
”We have, without doubt, sent down the Message (Qur’an) and We will assuredly guard it (from corruption).”

 


* Ali ibn Abi Talib *
About six-months after the death of Muhammad , his son-in-law and cousin Ali ibn Abi Talib presented the first fully compiled codex of the Qur’an. This codex was arranged by the chronologic order of revelation, gave the time and circumstances of each verse, cited Muhammad’s own words as to which verses abrogated (supersedes or cancels-out) which verses, and also gave Muhammad’s and Allah’s own words as to the fine-meaning of each and every verse. This Qur’an mus’haf was fantastic and did not have anything missing. Ali’s version of the Qur’an was widely rejected by the Muslim nation and not even endorsed by Muhammad’s immediate successor; Abu Bakr as-Siddiq. Though no challenges were made regarding its accuracy, the ground for rejecting Ali’s codex is that the Qur’an in complete book form had no precedent and the Muslims feared religious deviation. Any religious doctrine without the precedent of Muhammad is a sin known as bi’dah (religious innovation). The disappointment of this rejection lead Ali to put away his Qur’an and vow that none but his descendants shall ever see his codex.



posted on Aug, 18 2013 @ 09:30 PM
link   
* Abu Bakr as-Siddiq *
Upon Muhammad’s death in 632 AD/CE, Abu Bakr as-Siddiq became the first Caliph by majority election. “Caliph” is the title of the political, military, and spiritual leader of the Muslim nation. The Caliph is a position similar to a Papal-King. With no written Qur’an, constitution, or bylaws, Abu Bakr lead the Muslims by the remembrance of Muhammad’s example, words, actions, and recitation of the Qur’an.

Shortly after Ali withdrew his codex from the public domain, thousands of huffaz were killed in various civil-war and reunification battles. A hafiz (pl. huffaz) is a person who has memorized the Qur’an in its entirety. Many huffaz from all of the vying factions were slain in the 9-month civil war. Around 700 huffaz were slain in the Battle of Yamama alone.

As a result of the massive loss of Qur’an reciters, the first Caliph (Leader/Successor) Abu Bakr discussed with Umar ibn Al-Khattab and decided to compile and codify the Qur’an. There was fear that the Qur’an could become lost with more deaths of huffaz. Abu Bakr entrusted Zayd ibn Thabit to collect and compile the Qur’an. Zayd was a trusted scribe and expert of the Qur’an at the time of Muhammad. The various verses of the Qur’an were gathered from written fragments and from the memories of the huffaz and sahaba (direct companions/disciples) all around Arabia. As paper was not available, the fragmentary writings were found to be on palm leaves, plant stalks, cloth, leather, parchment, vellum, scapula bones, and even on slate rock. Each individual verse, whether written or recited, had to be approved by Zayd’s committee and a minimum of two sahaba. After nearly a year, Zayd’s codex of the Qur’an was finalized and given to Abu Bakr, who then approved the manuscript. This codex was not arranged in any specific order.

 


* Umar ibn Al-Khattab *
After Abu Bakr’s death, caliphate succession fell onto Umar ibn Al-Khattab. The codex of Zayd which was possessed by Abu Bakr was passed on to Umar during his ascension to the caliphate. Umar wanted to compare the Zayd manuscript with Ali’s original Qur’an manuscript to reconcile any discrepancies. Ali refused the request to provide his earlier Qur’an for comparison, citing Umar’s failure to acknowledge the codex when Ali originally presented it to Abu Bakr. As Caliph, Umar made a claim that a certain verse was missing from the Qur’an regarding the sanctioned punishment of stoning adulterers. Even with his insistence of the missing edict, Umar did not make any changes to Zayd’s codex of the Qur’an, and upon his death the codex was entrusted to his daughter Hafsa bint Umar, who was also one of the widows of Muhammad.



posted on Aug, 18 2013 @ 09:31 PM
link   
* Uthman ibn Affan *
After the death of Umar in 644 AD/CE, Muhammad’s third successor, Uthman ibn Affan, took reign of the Muslim nation. As Caliph, Uthman took a more heavy-handed policy than his predecessors regarding the codification of the Qur’an. Variant and differing recitations, manuscripts, meanings, and understandings of the Qur’an were becoming more rampant amongst the growing and expanding Islamic empire. Disputes and disagreements as to the proper recitation, pronunciation, wording, and meaning of the Qur’an were causing many open quarrels and confusion.


Narrated by Anas bin Malik:
Hudhaifa bin Al-Yaman came to Uthman at the time when the people of Sham and the people of Iraq were waging war to conquer Arminya and Adharbijan. Hudhaifa was afraid of their (the people of Sham and Iraq) differences in the recitation of the Qur'an, so he said to 'Uthman, "O chief of the Believers! Save this nation before they differ about the Book (Qur'an) as Jews and the Christians did before."

So 'Uthman sent a message to Hafsa saying, "Send us the manuscripts of the Qur'an so that we may compile the Qur'anic materials in perfect copies and return the manuscripts to you."

Hafsa sent it to 'Uthman. 'Uthman then ordered Zaid bin Thabit, 'Abdullah bin AzZubair, Said bin Al-As and 'Abdur-Rahman bin Harith bin Hisham to rewrite the manuscripts in perfect copies. 'Uthman said to the three Quraishi men, "In case you disagree with Zaid bin Thabit on any point in the Qur'an, then write it in the dialect of Quraish, the Qur'an was revealed in their tongue."

They did so, and when they had written many copies, 'Uthman returned the original manuscripts to Hafsa. 'Uthman sent to every Muslim province one copy of what they had copied, and ordered that all the other Qur'anic materials, whether written in fragmentary manuscripts or whole copies, be burnt.

[Sahih al-Bukhari 6.510



Caliph Uthman set out on an agenda to stamp out variations and authorize a singular codex. A call was launched to gather all fragmentary writings of the Qur’an which were scribed in the presence of Prophet Muhammad. Uthman then borrowed Zayd’s original codex from Hafsa and used it as the base model comparison for his own authorized Qur’an. Uthman ordered a literary committee, headed again by Zayd ibn Thabit, to make perfect copies of the Qur’an for distribution. Uthman also ordered the Qur’an to be completely stylized to the dialect of the Quraysh, being that it was the tribe that Prophet Muhammad hailed from. If there were any discrepancies, variations, or uncertainties about the dialect of any sentence of the Qur’an, the dialect of the Quraysh would be imposed. Uthman also sanctioned the ordering and arrangement of the sentences and chapters of the Qur’an. Uthman’s compilation was not arranged by the chronologic order of revelation, but instead by the alleged order of recitation that Prophet Muhammad instructed before his death. The verses and sentences of the Uthmani Qur’an are arranged differently than both Ali’s and Zayd’s original codices. A minimum of five identical compilations of the Qur’an were created by Uthman’s literary committee. One manuscript was kept in the personal possession of Uthman, and all of the others were sent to the governors of various Islamic provinces for standard reproduction.



After the Uthmani Qur’an was presented to the public, the Caliph then ordered all full, partial, and fragmentary manuscripts of the Qur’an to be burned and destroyed. The verses scribed in the presence of Muhammad were not sparred from Uthman’s order of fire. Even the first Zaydi codex commissioned by Abu Bakr was destroyed and tore to pieces upon the death of Hafsa. The Qur’an that we have today is said to be pristinely identical to Uthman’s original authorized version.



posted on Aug, 18 2013 @ 09:31 PM
link   
* Abdullah ibn Mas’ud *
At the age of 19, Abdullah Ibn Mas'ud became the seventh person to embrace Islam. Excluding Muhammad, Ibn Mas’ud was the first person to recite Qur’an aloud in public. Ibn Mas'ud voluntarily took on the duty as Prophet Muhammad's personal assistant. There were none amongst the sahaba (disciples/companions) that were in the presence of Muhammad more than Ibn Mas'ud. Personal and private needs, in-home and public assistance, day and night, waking and asleep, Ibn Mas'ud was the ever-present, ever-dedicated personal assistant of Muhammad.

It was through his faithfulness and companionship to Muhammad that Ibn Mas'ud became a praiseworthy and leading authority of Islam, the Qur'an, Hadith, sharia (Islamic Law) and fiqh (Islamic Jurisprudence). Ibn Masu’d was one of four people specifically referenced when Muhammad said, ”Take the Qur’an from four: Abdullah ibn Mas’ud, Salim, Mu’adh, and Ubai bin Ka’b.”

Muhammad and Umar gave exemplary authority to Ibn Mas’ud’s recitation of the Qur’an:


On the authority of Alqama who said:
A man who came to Umar Ibn al-Khattab as he was standing on the plain of Arafat and said: “I have come, O Amir al-Mumineen (Leader of the Believers), from Kufa where I left a man filling copies of the Qur’an from memory.”

Umar became very angry and paced up and down beside his camel, fuming. “Who is he?” he asked.

“Abdullah Ibn Masood,” replied the man.

Umar's anger subsided and he regained his composure. “Woe to you,” he said to the man. “By Allah, I don't know of any person left who is more qualified in this matter than he is. Let me tell you about this.”

Umar continued: “One night the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) was having a conversation with Abu Bakr about the situation of Muslims. I was with them. When the Prophet (s.a.w.s.) left, we left with him also and as we passed through the mosque, there was a man standing in Prayer whom we did not recognize.

The Prophet (s.a.w.s.) stood and listened to him, then turned to us and said, “Whoever wants to read the Qur’an as fresh as when it was revealed, then let him read according to the recitation of Ibn Umm Abd (Ibn Mas’ud).”

After the Prayer, as Abdullah sat making supplications, the Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said, “Ask and it will be given to you. Ask and it will be given to you.”

I said to myself, I should go to Abdullah Ibn Mas’ud straight away and tell him the good news of the Prophet’s (SAW) ensuring acceptance of his supplications. I went and did so but found that Abu Bakr had gone before me and conveyed the good news to him. By Allah, I have never yet beaten Abu Bakr in the doing of any good.”

[Mustadrak al-Haakim (2/246) No. 2893, ad-Dhahabee Classified it Sahih on the conditions of Bukhari and Muslim]


Ibn Mas’ud often proclaimed, without challenge, that he was the most knowable sahaba regarding the recitation of the Qur’an.The Caliphs and other notable sahaba also made such statements of affirmation regarding Ibn Masu’d’s authority of Qur’an, Hadith, Shariah, and Fiqh.


Narrated by Abdullah ibn Mas’ud:
”By Allah other than Whom none has the right to be worshipped! There is no Surah revealed in Allah's Book but I know at what place it was revealed; and there is no Verse revealed in Allah's Book but I know about whom it was revealed. And if I know that there is somebody who knows Allah's Book better than I, and he is at a place that camels can reach, I would go to him.”

[Sahih al-Bukhari 6.524]


CONTINUED



posted on Aug, 18 2013 @ 09:32 PM
link   
Although Ibn Mas’ud had a highly acclaimed reputation, he was not asked to participate in Uthman’s campaign to compile the Qur’an. When Uthman’s Authorized Qur’an was launched as the official standard, surprisingly, Ibn Mas’ud’s compilations of the Qur’an were also ordered to be burnt. Ibn Mas’ud strongly objected to the order:


'Abdullah (Ibn Mas'ud) reported that he (said to his companions to conceal their copies of the Qur'an) and further said: “He who conceals anything he shall have to bring that which he had concealed on the Day of Judgment,” and then said: “After whose mode of recitation you command me to recite? I in fact recited before Allah's Messenger (s.a.w.s.) more than seventy chapters of the Qur'an and the Companions of Allah's Messenger (s.a.w.s.) know it that I have better understanding of the Book of Allah (than they do), and if I were to know that someone had better understanding than I, I would have gone to him.”

Shaqiq said: I sat in the company of the Companions of Muhammad (s.a.w.s.) but I did not hear anyone having rejected that (that is, his recitation) or finding fault with it.”

[Sahih Muslim 6022]


Ibn Mas’ud is said to have directly contrasted his knowledge of the Qur’an as to Zayd ibn Thabit, by saying that he had already memorized over seventy chapters of the Qur’an directly from Muhammad when Zaid was still a child.

Ibn Mas’ud’s arrangement of sentences, verses, and chapters were different than the Uthmani Qur’an. Ibn Mas’ud also differed in several instances regarding the specific wording of the Qur’an. As one example of many, according to Ibn Mas’ud’s teaching, the Arabic recitation of Qur’an 9:3 that we have today is incorrect:


Narrated by Ibrahim:
The companions of 'Abdullah (bin Mas'ud) came to Abu Darda', (and before they arrived at his home), he looked for them and found them. Then he asked them, "Who among you can recite (Qur'an) as 'Abdullah recites it?"

They replied, "All of us."

He asked, "Who among you knows it by heart?"

They pointed at 'Alqama. Then he asked Alqama, "How did you hear 'Abdullah bin Mas'ud reciting Surat Al-Lail (Chapter 92: The Night)?"

Alqama recited "By the male and the female."

Abu Ad-Darda said, "I testify that I heard the Prophet reciting it likewise, but these people want me to recite it: "And by Him Who created male and female," but by Allah, I will not follow them."

[Sahih al-Bukhari 6.468]
[Sahih al-Bukhari 5.85]
[Sahih al-Bukhari 5.105]


Abdullah ibn Mas’ud recitation:
” By the night as it envelops,
And by the day as it appears in brightness.
By the male and the female,
Certainly your efforts and deeds are diverse.”


Uthmani recitation:
” By the night as it envelops,
And by the day as it appears in brightness.
By Him who created the male and the female,
Certainly your efforts and deeds are diverse.”


[Qur’an 92:1-4]


There are many more documented discrepancies between Ibn Mas’ud’s recitation and the recitation compiled by Zaid, commissioned by Uthman. Ibn Mas’ud taught a different Qur’an than the Uthmani Qur’an.

Ibn Mas’ud did not include Suratul Fatiha (“The Opening”, Chapter 1), Suratul Falaq (“Dawn”, Chapter 113), or Suratul Nas (“Mankind”, Chapter 114) in his Qur’an. He said that these 3 chapters were supplication prayers (du’a) and not a part of the Qur’an. Ibn Mas’ud’s Qur’an contained 111 chapters, whereas the modern Qur’an contains 114.



posted on Aug, 18 2013 @ 09:32 PM
link   
* Ubay ibn Ka’b *
Prior to Muhammad's Hijra (emigration), Ubay ibn Ka'b was amongst the first of the Ansar of Yathrib (Medina) to accept Islam.

Ubay became a hafiz (memorized the Qur'an in its entirety), and was one of the four reciters acclaimed by the authority of Muhammad: ”Take the Qur’an from four: Abdullah ibn Mas’ud, Salim, Mu’adh, and Ubai bin Ka’b.” Ubay ibn Ka'b was one of Muhammad's scribes in Medina, and was well-known to have compiled his own mus'haf of the Qur'an.

After the death of Muhammad, Ibn Ka’b served on the advisory committees of the first and second caliphs (Muhammad’s successors); Abu Bakr and Umar.


Umar ibn al-Khattab said [during his caliphate] :
“Whoever wishes to ask about The Qur’an then let him approach Ubay bin Ka’b, and whoever wants to ask about laws of inheritance then let him approach Zayd, and whoever wishes to ask about Fiqh; then let him approach Muadh, and whoever wants to ask about wealth; then let him come to me, for Allah has made me a safe-keeper and a distributor.”

[Siyar aa’laam an-Nubalaa : 1/389]


Ubay ibn Ka’b’s Qur’an contained 116 chapters, whereas today’s Qur’an contains 114 chapters. Ubay included two additional chapters known as Suratul Hafd and Suratul Khal. Just like Ibn Mas’ud’s claim that the first and last two chapters of the Qur’an are supplication prayers (du’a) and are not included in the recitation, the Uthmani compilers claim that Suratul Hafd and Suratul Khal are supplication prayers (du’a) and not a part of the recitation of al-Qur’an. However, Ubay ibn Ka’b disagreed with Ibn Mas’ud regarding Chapters 1, 113, and 114, as well as being in disagreement with the Uthmani codex regarding the omission of Suratul Hafd and Suratul Khal,… Ubay includes them all and recited a 116 chapter Qur’an.


Surat al-Hafd
”You (alone) we worship,
and to You (alone) we pray and lie prostrate,
and to You (alone) we proceed and have descendants.
We fear Your torture and hope for Your mercy.
Truly Your torture will overtake the infidels’
.


Surat al-Khal
”O Allah, You (alone) we ask for help and forgiveness.
We speak appreciatingly of Your goodness.
Never do we disbelieve You.
We repudiate and disbelieve anyone who follows immorality.”


Additionally, Ubay included some sentences that have been abrogated (superseded) and abandoned by the Uthmani codex:


Umar said, "Ubay was the best of us in the recitation (of the Qur'an) yet we leave some of what he recites." Ubay says, "I have taken it from the mouth of Allah's Apostle and will not leave for anything whatever." But Allah said, "None of Our Revelations do We abrogate or cause to be forgotten but We substitute something better or similar." (2.106)

Sahih al-Bukhari 6.527


As one example amongst many, according to the preeminent Qur’an scholar and translator Abdullah Yusuf Ali, Ubay’s recitation of Qur’an 33:6 is different than the Uthmani version:


In some Qira'ahs (Recitations), like that of Ubay ibn Ka'ab, occur also the words "and he is a father of them", which imply his spiritual relationship and connection with the words "and his wives are their mothers".


Ubay ibn Ka’b recitation:
”The Prophet is closer to the Believers than their own selves and he is a father of them, and his wives are their mothers. Blood-relations among each other have closer personal ties, in the Decree of Allah. Than (the Brotherhood of) Believers and Muhajirs (emigrants from Mecca): nevertheless do ye what is just to your closest friends: such is the writing in the Decree (of Allah).”

Uthmani Recitation:
”The Prophet is closer to the Believers than their own selves, and his wives are their mothers. Blood-relations among each other have closer personal ties, in the Decree of Allah. Than (the Brotherhood of) Believers and Muhajirs (emigrants from Mecca): nevertheless do ye what is just to your closest friends: such is the writing in the Decree (of Allah).”

[Qur’an 33:6]


Ubay’s Qur’an differed in spelling and wording in some instances, when compared to the Uthmani codex, as well as differing in sentence and chapter arrangement.



posted on Aug, 18 2013 @ 09:32 PM
link   
• Part 3: Physical Qur’ans

Islam teaches that it is the original and true religion of Abraham, and that it worships the God of Adam, Noah, Isaac, Jacob, Moses, and Jesus. Islam teaches that the Jewish traditions of God became corrupt and Jesus was sent to bring the people back to God. Muslims believe the Christians later corrupted God’s religion and Muhammad was sent to bring mankind back to God again. Muslims claim that the Qur’an is the only uncorrupted book of God, and that it will be protected until the end times (Judgment Day). Muslims say that the Qur’an we have today is the same Qur’an of Muhammad’s time, word for word, letter for letter. Many base their entire faith upon this premise. This entire concept of the completeness, originality, purity, and incorruption of the Qur’an is not true. In each of these points, the opposite has been shown.


The fact of the matter is, the oldest surviving Qur’an which is fully intact and fully complete dates to 1203 AD/CE. This is a staggering 571 years after Muhammad’s death!



In 2007, the oldest fully-complete Qur’an sold at Christie Auction House in London, England for $2.3 million dollars. It is signed by Yahya bin Muhammad ibn ‘Umar and dates to June 6, 1203 AD/CE. It is completely written with gold, and uses silver for its margins.

 


Although none are complete or fully intact, fragments of Qur’an compilations exist which are far older than the Qur’an sold at Christie Auction House. There are a few small fragments dated to the mid-600’s AD/CE, however, due to their lack of consistency and uniformity amongst themselves and with today’s modern Qur’an, we will only highlight the most significant manuscripts.


* Codex Sana’a *



In 1972, a restoration project at the thirteen-hundred year old Great Mosque of Sana’a in Yemen unearthed a hidden cache of ancient manuscripts, including fragments of the Qur’an. Carbon-dating of the parchment and ink, along with the analysis of its Hijazi script-type place the Qur’an fragments to 649-715 AD/CE, making them the oldest examples of Qur’an known to exist. The Sana’a Qur’an fragments are written in an archaic Hijazi script. The palimpsest contains two layers of writing. The older layer, scriptio inferior, has been washed off (erased) and the newer layer, scriptio superior,has been written over it. The compilation includes less than half of the Qur’an, with some pages missing, and some pages damaged. The scriptio inferior has become easier to study using ultraviolet lighting.



The literary experts (Islamic and non-Islamic) from around the world that have been working on restoring, understanding, and publishing the Sana’a manuscript are all in agreement as to its comparison to today’s Qur’an. The newer scriptio superior follows the same format as today’s modern Qur’an, however, it contains spelling differences. The older scriptio inferior shares several commonalities to the Codex of Ubay ibn Ka’b, and illustrates different chapter arrangements and different sentence arrangements than today’s Qur’an. The Sana’a Qur’an also uses different wording than the modern Qur’an.



 



* MS. Or. 2165 *



The British Library of London, England is in possession of the one of the oldest known compiled Qur’ans. The historians and curators of both the British Library and the British Museum date the Qur’an to the 8th century. However, the manuscript has also been dated by other researchers to as early as 650 AD/CE. It is written in an archaic Hijazi script known as Ma’il script. This Qur’an, known as MS. Or. 2165, is missing more than 47% of its content.

 



* MS. Arabe 328a *



The National Library of Paris, France has fragments of one of the oldest Qur’an compilations. MS. Arabe328a dates to the later-half of the seventh century AD/CE, similar in age to MS. Or. 2165. This codex is only 26% complete, and features multiple spelling and copyist errors. It is written without vocalization (vowels), in an archaic Hijazi script.

CONTINUED



posted on Aug, 18 2013 @ 09:33 PM
link   
* Samarkand/Tashkent Manuscript *



Falsely believed to be an original Uthmani Qur’an, the Samarkand/Tashkent
Manuscript is housed at the Telyashayakh Mosque in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. There are no definitive historic facts as to the origins of this manuscript, but legend says this was the personal Qur’an of the third caliph Uthman. It is believed to be a spoil of war by the Turkic/Mongol ruler Timur, Tarmashirin Khan, a.k.a. Tamerlane. Another legend says the Qur’an is a gift to the Uzbeks from the Seljuk Sultanate. It has been dated to the 8th Century by varying researchers through carbon-dating and script analysis. It is written in a Kufic script lacking diacritical marks.

The Samarkand Manuscript is missing two-thirds of its content and differs from the modern Qur’an on a multitude of instances. There are different spellings, different words used, and there are omitted and added words.

www.answeringislam.info..." target="_blank" class="postlink" rel="nofollow">[Chapter IX: Samarqand VS. 1924 Edition - ‘The Same’?]

 



* Topkapi Manuscript *



The Topkapi Manuscript is housed at the Topkapi Palace Museum in Istanbul, Turkey. It is also falsely purported to be one of the original Uthmani Qur’ans. It’s Kufic script, illumination, and vowel markings are of the Ummayyad Caliphate period. It is missing 2 folios, some pages have fragmentation, however, it contains almost 99% of the standard text of the Qur’an. It contains spelling errors, copyist mistakes, and does not adhere to a uniformity of spelling within its own self.

 


* False Uthmani Qur’ans *
There are three additional manuscripts of significance which are falsely named “Uthmani Qur’ans”. One is located at the Turkish and Islamic Art Museum of Istanbul, Turkey, one is housed at the Egyptian National Library, and the final is located at the Al-Hussein Mosque in Cairo, Egypt. The academic analysis of the Kufic script used in all of these manuscripts is illustrative of the 8th century Ummayyad Caliphate Period.

 


The above mentioned manuscripts are amongst the oldest and most complete Qur’ans that are existent. All of them are incomplete, fragmented, or damaged. Each contains accidental or deliberate spelling errors, some have additions and omissions of text, some are structurally different than today’s Qur’an, and some use different wording and different phrasing altogether.

There are no ancient examples of the Qur’an that are fully complete or letter-for-letter and word-for-word identical to the Qur’an that we have today.



posted on Aug, 18 2013 @ 09:33 PM
link   
• Part 4: Potentially Lost Verses and Abrogation

Two verses barely made it into Zaid ibn Thabit’s codex. All of the disciples (sahaba) and reciters had forgotten two verses until a man named Khuzaima ibn Thabit spoke up and refreshed everyone’s memories. There are many sahih ahadith (authentic traditions) regarding Khuzaima’s recitation of Qur’an verses 33:23 and 9:128-129.


Narrated by Anas bin Malik:
Hudhaifa bin Al-Yaman came to Uthman at the time when the people of Sham and the people of Iraq were waging war to conquer Arminya and Adharbijan. Hudhaifa was afraid of their (the people of Sham and Iraq) differences in the recitation of the Qur'an, so he said to 'Uthman, "O chief of the Believers! Save this nation before they differ about the Book (Qur'an) as Jews and the Christians did before."

So 'Uthman sent a message to Hafsa saying, "Send us the manuscripts of the Qur'an so that we may compile the Qur'anic materials in perfect copies and return the manuscripts to you." Hafsa sent it to 'Uthman. 'Uthman then ordered Zaid bin Thabit, 'Abdullah bin AzZubair, Said bin Al-As and 'Abdur-Rahman bin Harith bin Hisham to rewrite the manuscripts in perfect copies. 'Uthman said to the three Quraishi men, "In case you disagree with Zaid bin Thabit on any point in the Qur'an, then write it in the dialect of Quraish, the Qur'an was revealed in their tongue." They did so, and when they had written many copies, 'Uthman returned the original manuscripts to Hafsa. 'Uthman sent to every Muslim province one copy of what they had copied, and ordered that all the other Qur'anic materials, whether written in fragmentary manuscripts or whole copies, be burnt.

Said bin Thabit added, "A Verse from Surat Ahzab was missed by me when we copied the Qur'an and I used to hear Allah's Apostle reciting it. So we searched for it and found it with Khuzaima bin Thabit Al-Ansari. (That Verse was):”Among the Believers are men who have been true in their covenant with Allah." (33.23)

[Sahih al-Bukhari 6.510]


Narrated by Zaid ibn Thabit:
Abu Bakr sent for me and said, "You used to write the Divine Revelations for Allah's Apostle. So you should search for (the Qur'an and collect) it."

I started searching for the Qur'an till I found the last two Verses of Surat At-Tauba with Abi Khuzaima Al-Ansari and I could not find these Verses with anybody other than him. (They were) "Verily there has come unto you an Apostle (Muhammad) from amongst yourselves. It grieves him that you should receive any injury or difficulty..." (9.128-129)

[Sahih al-Bukhari 6.511]


That was a close one! If only one man initially remembered these verses, how can we ever be fully sure that other verses were not forgotten as well?

 



”None of Our revelations do We abrogate or cause to be forgotten, except We substitute something better or similar: Knowest thou not that Allah Hath power over all things?” Qur’an 2:106

Abrogation (Naskh) is the change, repeal, removal, or cancelation of a verse, sentence, or ruling of the Qur’an. As the Qur’an was revealed incrementally during 23 years, there was a need to sometimes change, cancel, or modify Islamic teachings.

There are three main types of abrogation:

1. Naskh al-hukm duna al-tilawa (Words Stay, Ruling Abandoned): The original verse remains intact, but a newer verse supersedes its ruling.

2. Naskh al-hukm wa'l-tilawa (Words Removed, Ruling Abandoned): The verse and ruling are removed and annihilated from the Qur’an and Islam altogether.

3. Naskh al-tilawa duna al-hukm (Words Removed, Ruling Stay): The verse is removed from the Qur’an, but it’s ruling is still followed.


As we’ve earlier discussed, Ali ibn Abi-Talib and Ubay ibn Ka’b originally included all abrogated verses in their Qur’ans. The standardization of the Qur’an sought to erase the earlier abrogated verses which had become null-and-void. Some notable examples of abrogation include:

CONTINUED



posted on Aug, 18 2013 @ 09:33 PM
link   
reply to post by Sahabi
 


Al Quran an Natiq is incorruptible.



posted on Aug, 18 2013 @ 09:34 PM
link   
Abrogation Regarding “Rajam” (Stoning)


Narrated by Ibn Abbas:
Umar sat on the pulpit and when the callmakers for the prayer had finished their call, Umar stood up, and having glorified and praised Allah as He deserved, he said, "Now then, I am going to tell you something which (Allah) has written for me to say. I do not know; perhaps it portends my death, so whoever understands and remembers it, must narrate it to the others wherever his mount takes him, but if somebody is afraid that he does not understand it, then it is unlawful for him to tell lies about me. Allah sent Muhammad with the Truth and revealed the Holy Book to him, and among what Allah revealed, was the Verse of the Rajam (the stoning of married person (male & female) who commits illegal sexual intercourse, and we did recite this Verse and understood and memorized it. Allah's Apostle did carry out the punishment of stoning and so did we after him.
I am afraid that after a long time has passed, somebody will say, 'By Allah, we do not find the Verse of the Rajam in Allah's Book,'
and thus they will go astray by leaving an obligation which Allah has revealed. And the punishment of the Rajam is to be inflicted to any married person (male & female), who commits illegal sexual intercourse, if the required evidence is available or there is conception or confession.

And then we used to recite among the Verses in Allah's Book: ‘O people! Do not claim to be the offspring of other than your fathers, as it is disbelief (unthankfulness) on your part that you claim to be the offspring of other than your real father.”


[Sahih al-Bukhari 8.817]


In other sources, Ubay ibn Ka’b states that many verses were left-out of chapter 33 of the Qur’an when the stoning edict was removed:


Ubayy asked Zirr b. Hubais, “How many verses do you recite in surat al Ahzab (Chapter 33)?”

Zirr replied, “Seventy-three verses.”

Ubayy asked if that was all. “I have seen it,” he said, “when it was the same length as Baqara (Chapter 2). It contained the words "The saikh and the saikha, when they fornicate, stone them outright, as an exemplary punishment from God. God is might, wise."'

(John Burton, The Collection of the Qur'an, 1977. pp. 78-79, Ahmad b. al Husain al Baihaqi, "al Sunan al Kubra", 10 vols., Haiderabad, 1925-38/1344-57, vol. 8, pp. 210-11)

 


Ubayy said, “It used to equal the length surat al Baqara (Chapter 2) and we used to recite in Ahzab (Chapter 33) the stoning verse.”

Zirr asked, “What is the stoning verse?”

Ubayy recited, “If the saikh and the saikha fornicate, stone them outright as an exemplary punishment from God. God is mighty, wise.”

(John Burton, The Collection of the Qur'an, 1977, p. 80, Jalal al Din `Abdul Rahman b. abi Bakr al Suyuti, "al Itqan fi `ulum al Qur'an", Halabi, Cairo, 1935/1354, pt 2, p. 25)

 


Ahzab was identified as the sura originally containing the stoning verse, and, in addition to Ubayy and Abu Musa, `A'isa reports that Ahzab used to be recited, in the lifetime of the Prophet, as having 200 verses, but when `Uthman wrote out the mushafs, all they could find was its present length.

(Jalal al Din `Abdul Rahman b. abi Bakr al Suyuti, "al Itqan fi `ulum al Qur'an", Halabi, Cairo, 1935/1354, pt 2, p. 25)


Suratul Baqarah (Chapter 2) contains 286 verses. Suratul Ahzab (Chapter 33) contains 73 verses. In addition to Ubay ibn Ka’b claim, Muhammad’s widow Aisha bint Abi Bakr also stated that Suratul Ahzab (Chapter 33) used to contain over 200 verses:


Aisha reports that Ahzab (Chapter 33) used to be recited, in the lifetime of the Prophet, as having 200 verses, but when `Uthman wrote out the mus’hafs, all they could find was its present length (73 verses).

(Jalal al Din `Abdul Rahman b. abi Bakr al Suyuti, "al Itqan fi `ulum al Qur'an", Halabi, Cairo, 1935/1354, pt 2, p. 25)

 


The stoning verse and another verse were revealed and recorded on a sheet (sahifa) which was placed for safe-keeping under her (Aisha’s) bedding. When the Prophet fell ill and the household were preoccupied with nursing him, a domestic animal got in from the yard and gobbled up the sheet.

(p. 86, Burhan al Din al Baji, "Jawab", MS Dar al Kutub, Taimur "majami`", no. 207, f. 15)



posted on Aug, 18 2013 @ 09:34 PM
link   
Abrogation Regarding "No compulsion in religion"

The verse, "No compulsion in religion" [Qur’an 2:256], was abrogated two years after its revelation in favor of jihad against non-believers:


But then Allah's saying (There is no compulsion in religion…) was abrogated and the Prophet was commanded to fight the "People of the Book" in Suratul Tawbah (Chapter 9).

- Tafsir Al-Wahidi


Ibn Abbas said: It was revealed with regard to a man from the tribe of Bani Salim Ibn Awf called al-Husayni whose two sons converted to Christianity but he was himself a Muslim. He told the Prophet: "Shall I force them to embrace Islam, they insist on Christianity", hence Allah revealed this verse. But, this verse was abrogated by the verse of fighting.

- Tafsir ibn Kathir



Two years after the "No compulsion in religion" verse was revealed, this is the set of verses that were revealed to abrogate/supersede it:


"1. [This is a declaration of] disassociation, from Allah and His Messenger, to those with whom you had made a treaty among the polytheists.

2. So travel freely, [O disbelievers], throughout the land [during] four months but know that you cannot cause failure to Allah and that Allah will disgrace the disbelievers.

3. And [it is] an announcement from Allah and His Messenger to the people on the day of the greater pilgrimage that Allah is disassociated from the disbelievers, and [so is] His Messenger. So if you repent, that is best for you; but if you turn away - then know that you will not cause failure to Allah . And give tidings to those who disbelieve of a painful punishment.

4. Excepted are those with whom you made a treaty among the polytheists and then they have not been deficient toward you in anything or supported anyone against you; so complete for them their treaty until their term [has ended]. Indeed, Allah loves the righteous [who fear Him].

5. And when the sacred months have passed, then kill the polytheists wherever you find them and capture them and besiege them and sit in wait for them at every place of ambush. But if they should repent, establish prayer, and give zakah, let them [go] on their way. Indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Merciful."


[Qur'an, Suratul Tawbah, ayah 1-5 (9:1-5)]


Verse 1-3 state that Allah and Muhammad are now disassociated from all non-believers.

Verse 4 says to honor the remaining treaties with non-believers only until their predetermined length has expired.

Verse 5 says to kill, enslave, and besiege all non-believers anywhere unless they become Muslim, indicated by "repent, prayer, and zakah".


Chapter 9 of the Qur'an contains many of the last verses to be revealed in Islam including:


"O you who have believed, fight those near to you of the disbelievers and let them find in you harshness. And know that Allah is with the righteous."

[Quran, Suratul Tawbah, ayat 123 (9:123)]



"O Prophet, fight against the disbelievers and the hypocrites and be harsh upon them. And their refuge is Hell, and wretched is the destination."

[Quran, Suratul Tawbah, ayah 73 (9:73)]



CONTINUED



posted on Aug, 18 2013 @ 09:34 PM
link   
Abrogation Regarding "He is pleased with us"


Narrated by Anas bin Malik:
The Prophet invoked evil upon those (people) who killed his companions at Bir Mauna for 30 days (in the morning prayer). He invoked evil upon (tribes of) Ril, Lihyan and Usaiya who disobeyed Allah and His Apostle. Allah revealed a Qur'anic Verse to His Prophet regarding those who had been killed, i.e. the Muslims killed at Bir Ma'una, and we recited the Verse till later it was cancelled. (The Verse was
”Inform our people that we have met our Lord, and He is pleased with us, and we are pleased with Him."


[Sahih al-Bukhari 5.421]


 



Abrogation Regarding ”Valley of Riches"


Narrated by Sahl bin Sa’d:
I heard Ibn Az-Zubair who was on the pulpit at Mecca, delivering a sermon, saying, "O men! The Prophet used to say, "If the son of Adam were given a valley full of gold, he would love to have a second one; and if he were given the second one, he would love to have a third, for nothing fills the belly of Adam's son except dust. And Allah forgives he who repents to Him." Ubai said, "We considered this as a saying from the Qur'an till the Surah (beginning with) 'The mutual rivalry for piling up of worldly things diverts you...' (102.1) was revealed."

[Sahih al-Bukhari 8.446]


Abu Harb ibn Abu al-Aswad reported on the authority of his father that Abu Musa al-Ash'ari sent for the reciters of Basra. They came to him and they were three hundred in number. They recited the Qur'an and he said: “You are the best among the inhabitants of Basra, for you are the reciters among them. So continue to recite it. (But bear in mind) that your reciting for a long time may not harden your hearts as were hardened the hearts of those before you.”

We used to recite a surah which resembled in length and severity to (Surah) Bara'at (Qur’an, Chapter 9). I have, however, forgotten it with the exception of this which I remember out of it:" If there were two valleys full of riches, for the son of Adam, he would long for a third valley, and nothing would fill the stomach of the son of Adam but dust." And we used so recite a surah which resembled one of the surahs of Musabbihat (Qur’an, Chapters 17, 57, 59, 61, 62, 64, 89), and I have forgotten it, but remember (this much) out of it:" Oh people who believe, why do you say that which you do not practice" (lxi 2.) and" that is recorded in your necks as a witness (against you) and you would be asked about it on the Day of Resurrection" (xvii. 13).

[Sahih Muslim 5.2286]


 



Here is a list of ”Naskh al-hukm duna al-tilawa” (Words Stay, Ruling Abandoned) type abrogations:
List of Abrogations in the Qur'an



posted on Aug, 18 2013 @ 09:35 PM
link   
• Part 5: Hijazi Defective Script; Not Classical Arabic Script or Kufic

It is falsely believed by many that the original compilation of the Qur’an was written in Classical Arabic script. In fact, “Classical Arabic Script” did not fully develop and popularize in Islam until well into the Umayyad Caliphate, which spanned the years 661-750 AD/CE.

Many of the existent Qur’an manuscripts and fragments which are falsely attributed to Uthman or Islam’s early beginnings are written in an Arabic script known as Kufic. The Kufic Script was developed in Kufa, Iraq and perfected its vocalization during the end of the 7th century. Spread by Kufi travelers, the Kufic script didn’t become popularized with Islamic officials until the 8th century during the Umayyad Caliphate.

Uthman’s official manuscript would have been penned in the Arabic style of the Hejaz region of Saudia Arabia. With Uthman’s insistence of a Qurayshi-based dialect of the Qur’an, it is obvious that the script which was native to Uthman’s scribes, the Quraysh, Mecca, and Medina would have been used; Hijazi Script. The two most notable Hijazi scripts are the Ma’il script and the Mashq script. “Ma’il” literally means “slanting”, as indicated by the Ma’il script’s angular slanting style. The Mashq script was developed in Medina, and employs a leisurely cursive style.

The Hijazi scripts were defective scripts of Arabic. That is to say, the Arabic writing system of the Hejaz region during the time of Muhammad, Abu Bakr, and Uthman did not accurately represent the spoken language. The Hijazi scripts were in the archaic format of rasm. In fact, the script used in the original Uthmani codecies is known as ar-Rasm al-Uthmani by early Islamic scholars.

All phoneme sounds found in the language weren’t represented in the alphabet. The script at that time did not include vowels (vocalization), did not implement uniform word or sentence spacing, and several letters represented multiple phonemes without clear distinction as to what sound is meant. There are 28 letters in the modern Arabic alphabet, but only 18 letters is rasm to represent those 28 phoneme sounds.

To illustrate letter sharing in English, this would be similar to not being able to differentiate between the letters [B, T, N, J] as they would share the same letter but represent a different phoneme sound.

Without vowel usage in English, this would be like writing the word “Book” as “BK”. Without proper clarification, this “BK” could potentially be “Bake” or “Bike”.

Now, considering letter sharing and non-vocalization, the word “BOOK” could be “BK” or “TK” or “NK” or “JK”, in addition with any vowel combinations.

The words and sentences contain no uniformity to their spacing. Several words can be written together as one word, or one word could be separated and appear to be two or more words. It was not always clear when one sentence ended and another began. Spacing was at the whim of the scribe as they wrote.

Now imagine reading an entire book formatted in archaic rasm. Listening to trusted Qur’an reciters instead of reading was important, but it still did not eliminate all of the variations that arose from the written texts. This is a reason why prior to and after Uthman’s Authorized Qur’an, many variant readings and understandings thrive.

The various defective scripts of archaic Arabic and rasm have all been replaced by more precise, more accurate, and more meaningful scripts of Arabic today. As far as script is concerned, it’s not a matter of “understanding classical or medieval Arabic”, it is a matter of figuring out what the heck the limited alphabet is trying to represent. Reading defective script and rasm is not about understanding the spoken language; it is a challenge of deciphering a written puzzle. When medieval or Classical Arabic is written in standardized Arabic script, it is no problem to understand. But anything written in defective rasm is a conundrum. Today’s modernly spoken Arabic written in defective rasm would be a head-banger for even the native speakers to read. No vowels, no word spacing, one letter represents multiple sounds, all language phoneme sounds are not represented…. one could create any meaning out of a book written like that.

CONTINUED



posted on Aug, 18 2013 @ 09:35 PM
link   
The rise of Islam went hand-in-hand with the development and perfection of various scripts of Arabic. With Uthman’s format and compilation set as a standard, people began to copy the Qur’an en masse. From here, the vowel vocalizations and uniform word and sentence spacing began to develop. In its perfection came the beautiful art of calligraphy.







Without Islam, the Arabic script would not be what it is today. However, the initial compilation of the Qur’an did not enjoy the clarity, depth, or richness of modern today’s Arabic script.



posted on Aug, 18 2013 @ 09:36 PM
link   
• Part 6: Different Recitations: Ahruf and Qira’at

Another false belief is that the Qur’an was revealed and recited in the standard Classical Arabic language. The fact of the matter is that the Arabic spoken by Muhammad and those of the Hejaz region was a coalescence of multiple and varying dialects. Mecca was one of the major hubs of religious pilgrimage, trade, and caravan routes. People crossed into Mecca from regions all around the Arabian Peninsula, Africa, Europe, and Asia. Muhammad’s tribal kinsmen were the custodians of the pilgrimage city of Mecca, and Muhammad’s wife was a wealthy merchant. There is no doubt as to Muhammad’s awareness and utilization of multiple dialects. People came to Mecca from all over the known-world, and the neighboring Semitic speakers brought their unique dialects with them.

When the original fragments and oral recitations of the Qur’an were collected by the committees of Abu Bakr and Uthman, many varying recitations and different dialects were evident. Some isolated and regional dialect variance arose through the interpretation and assimilation of Islam and the Qur’an by those outside of the Hejaz region, and as the empire expanded, by non-Arabic speakers. However, some examples of differing recitation and dialect usage were found universally amongst the majority of Qur’an sources, and even acknowledged by Muhammad himself:


Narrated by Umar ibn Al-Khattab:
I heard Hisham bin Hakim reciting Surat Al-Furqan during the lifetime of Allah's Apostle and I listened to his recitation and noticed that he recited in several different ways which Allah's Apostle had not taught me. I was about to jump over him during his prayer, but I controlled my temper, and when he had completed his prayer, I put his upper garment around his neck and seized him by it and said, "Who taught you this Surah which I heard you reciting?"

He replied, "Allah's Apostle taught it to me."

I said, "You have told a lie, for Allah's Apostle has taught it to me in a different way from yours." So I dragged him to Allah's Apostle and said (to Allah's Apostle), "I heard this person reciting Surat Al-Furqan in a way which you haven't taught me!"

On that Allah's Apostle said, "Release him, (O 'Umar!) Recite, O Hisham!" Then he recited in the same way as I heard him reciting. Then Allah's Apostle said, "It was revealed in this way," and added, "Recite, O 'Umar!" I recited it as he had taught me. Allah's Apostle then said, "It was revealed in this way. This Qur'an has been revealed to be recited in seven different ways, so recite of it whichever (way) is easier for you (or read as much of it as may be easy for you)."

[Sahih al-Bukhari 6.524
Sahih Muslim 4.1782]


Abdullah ibn Abbas said:
Allah's Apostle said, "Gabriel recited the Qur'an to me in one way. Then I requested him (to read it in another way), and continued asking him to recite it in other ways, and he recited it in several ways till he ultimately recited it in seven different ways."

[Sahih al-Bukhari 6.513]
[url=http://sahihmuslim.com/sps/smm/sahihmuslim.cfm?scn=dsphadeeth&HadeethID=1785&txt=seven modes][Sahih Muslim 4.1785]


CONTINUED



posted on Aug, 18 2013 @ 09:36 PM
link   

Ubay ibn Ka'b reported:
I was in the mosque when a man entered and prayed and recited (the Qur'an) in a style to which I objected. Then another man entered (the mosque) and recited in a style different from that of his companion. When we had finished the prayer, we all went to Allah's Messenger (s.a.w.s.) and said to him: “This man recited in a style to which I objected, and the other entered and recited in a style different from that of his companion.”

The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) asked them to recite and so they recited, and the Prophet of Allah (s.a.w.s.) expressed approval of their affairs (their modes of recitation). And there occurred in my mind a sort of denial which did not occur even during the Days of Ignorance. When the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) saw how I was affected (by a wrong idea), he struck my chest, whereupon I broke into sweating and felt as though I were looking at Allah with fear.

He (the Prophet) said to me: “Ubay, a message was sent to me to recite the Qur'an in one dialect, and I replied: Make (things) easy for my people. It was conveyed to me for the second time that it should be recited in two dialects. I again replied to him: Make affairs easy for my people. It was again conveyed to me for the third time to recite in seven dialects. And (I was further told): You have got a seeking for every reply that I sent you, which you should seek from Me. I said: O Allah! forgive my people, forgive my people, and I have deferred the third one for the day on which the entire creation will turn to me, including even Ibrahim (s.a.w.s.) (for intercession).

[Sahih Muslim 4.1787]


Ubay ibn Ka'b reported that:
The Prophet of Allah (s.a.w.s.) was near the tank of Banu Ghifar that Gabriel came to him and said: “Allah has commanded you to recite to your people the Qur'an in one dialect.”

Upon this he said: “I ask from Allah pardon and forgiveness. My people are not capable of doing it.”

He then came for the second time and said: “Allah has commanded you that you should recite the Qur'an to your people in two dialects.”

Upon this he (the Prophet) again said: “I seek pardon and forgiveness from Allah, my people would not be able to do so.”

He (Gabriel) came for the third time and said: “Allah has commanded you to recite the Qur'an to your people in three dialects.”

Upon this he said: “I ask pardon and forgiveness from Allah. My people would not be able to do it.”

He then came to him for the fourth time and said: “Allah has commanded you to recite the Qur'an to your people in seven dialects, and in whichever dialect they would recite, they would be right.”

[Sahih Muslim 4.1789]



These “Seven Different Recitations” have been a topic of much debate and speculation amongst Islamic and non-Islamic scholars and researchers throughout the centuries.

Some argue that the “Seven” variants are regarding dialect, tribe, or region.

Dialect and/or Tribe:
1. Quraysh
2. Huzayl
3. Taymur Rabab
4. Azd
5. Rabi’ah
6. Hawazin
7. Bani Sa’d ibn Bakr
* with the addition of:
8. Kinanah
9. Bani Dabbah
10. Bani Assad
11. Thaqif
12. Banu Tamim
13. Yemeni

Region / District
1. Mecca, Saudi Arabia
2. Medina, Saudi Arabia
3. Damascus, Syria
4. Basra, Iraq
5. Kufa, Iraq
6. Yemen

Caliph Uthman ordered all dialects to be replaced and abandoned in favor of the dialect of the Quraysh:


Narrated by Anas:
Uthman called Zaid bin Thabit, Abdullah bin Az-Zubair, Said bin Al-'As and 'AbdurRahman bin Al-Harith bin Hisham, and then they wrote the manuscripts of the Holy Qur'an in the form of book in several copies. Uthman said to the three Quraishi persons: " If you differ with Zaid bin Thabit on any point of the Qur'an, then write it in the language of Quraish, as the Qur'an was revealed in their language." So they acted accordingly. (Said bin Thabit was an Ansari and not from Quraish ).

[Sahih al-Bukhari 4.709]



CONTINUED



posted on Aug, 18 2013 @ 09:36 PM
link   
After the standardization of the Qurayshi dialect, there still continued to remain variations in the Qira’at (recitation) of the Qur’an. These variations are in the form of pronunciation or accent differences, spelling differences, variation of vowels and diacritical marks, differences in singular or plural form, differences in word gender, differences in verb tense, difference in sentence and chapter arrangement, transposition of words, and addition and omission differences.



The following list of “Qira’at Reciters” are the main schools of acceptable recitation:

Qira’at Reciter
1. Nafi’ (1. Warsh) (2. Qalun)
2. Ibn Kathir (1. Al-Bazzi) (2. Qunbul)
3. Abu Amr ibn al-Ala (1. Al-Duri) (2. Al-Suri)
4. Ibn Amir (1. Hisham) (2. Ibn Dhakwan)
5. Abu Bakr Asim (1. Hafs) (2. Shu’bah)
6. Hamzah (1. Khalaf) (2. Khallad)
7. Al-Qisa’I (1. Al-Duri) (2. Abul-Harith)
* with the addition of:
8. Abu Jafar (1. Isa ibn Wirdan) (2. Ibn Jummaz)
9. Yaqub ibn Ishaq al-Hadrami (1. Ruways) (2. Rawh)
10. Khalaf al-Bazzar (1. Ishaq) (2. Idris al-Haddad)
11. Hasan al-Basri (1. Shujac al-Balkhi) (2. Abu Amr Hafs al-Duri)
12. Muhammad ibn Muhaisin (1. Al-Bazzi) (2. Abu al-Hasan ibn Shannabudh)
13. Yahya al-Yazidi (1. Sulaiman ibn al-Hakam) (2. Ahmad ibn Farah)

Each reciter is known by the recitation of their two most prestigious students. So each school of recitation actually has two ideologies of recitation. For example, referencing the previous list, Nafi ibn ‘Abd ar-Rahman is the founder of the “Nafi” school of recitation. Nafi’s recitation was transmitted by his two students Warsh and Qunbul.

Some schools of recitation have since become extinct, as the chain of recitation has not continued and is no longer known. The most widely known recitations of the Qur’an in use today are the “Hafs” of Abu Bakr Asim, “Warsh” of Nafi’, “Qalun” of Nafi’, and the “al-Duri” of Abu Amr ibn al-Ala.

 



In regards to the seven ahruf that Muhammad spoke of, some modern researchers have reexamined the Qur’an and found links to the Syro-Aramaic (Syriac) language.


Gabriel Sawma is a lawyer with emphasis on International Law, mainly the European Union Law, the Middles East and Islamic Shari'a Laws. Professor of Aramaic, and a recognized authority on Islamic studies. He is expert in the Aramaic influence on the Qur'an and on Biblical Hebrew. Speaks, reads, and writes Arabic, Aramaic, and Hebrew and author of many articles on the Aramaic language.

 


”Aramaic is not only the dominant language of the Qur'an; it is the language of the Qur'an, without which the Qur'an can never be understood. Every single verse of Qur'an is written in the Aramaic language.”

The Qur'an: Misinterpreted, Mistranslated, and Misread - The Aramaic Language of the Qur'an



Christoph Luxenberg is the pseudonym of a German scholar and professor of ancient Semitic and Arabic languages.

 


”What is meant by Syro-Aramaic (actually Syriac) is the branch of Aramaic in the Near East originally spoken in Edessa and the surrounding area in Northwest Mesopotamia and predominant as a written language from Christianization to the origin of the Koran. For more than a millennium Aramaic was the lingua franca in the entire Middle Eastern region before being gradually displaced by Arabic beginning in the 7th century.”

The Syro-Aramaic Reading of the Koran: A Contribution to the Decoding of the Language of the Koran


These writings claim that today’s Qur’an is grossly mistranslated because of the failure to understanding the impact of the Syraic language on the trade and pilgrimage center of Mecca.



posted on Aug, 18 2013 @ 09:37 PM
link   
I cannot believe how much information you posted. This is crazy. The only known good criticism about the authenticity of the Qur'an is people who found older written additions that contradict the current version of the Qur'an.





new topics
top topics
 
109
<<   2  3  4 >>

log in

join


Haters, Bigots, Partisan Trolls, Propaganda Hacks, Racists, and LOL-tards: Time To Move On.
read more: Community Announcement re: Decorum