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Moscow has never acknowledged the outbreak or that it ever tested smallpox in the open air. But late last year, a former top official in the Soviet germ weapons program spoke of the incident in an interview with a Moscow newspaper, and Kazakh officials have recently been investigating the outbreak's origins.
The outbreak struck Aralsk, a port on the Aral sea in what was then the Kazakh Republic. The report says a ship doing ecological research sailed too close to a military smallpox test that sent out a deadly plume of germs, infecting a crew member who carried the virus back to the city.
''We know that the vaccine works well in the vast majority of cases,'' Alan P. Zelicoff, a team member who is also a physician and smallpox expert at the Sandia National Laboratories, said in an interview. ''What the new data strongly suggests is that we have much more work to do on new vaccines and the development of antiviral drugs, none of which are available today.''
In envisioning a smallpox attack, terrorism experts consider person-to-person contact a main threat. Members of the Monterey team said the blowing of germs in the wind suggested that a contemporary smallpox threat could be harder to combat and contain.
What You Should Know About a Smallpox Outbreak
The thought of a smallpox outbreak is scary, but public health officials are preparing to respond quickly and effectively to such an event. The public can prepare too, by being informed. This fact sheet was created to provide members of the public with basic information about the possible use of smallpox as a biological weapon and what to do if that happens. If a smallpox emergency occurs, more detailed information and instructions will be available on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) web site and through other channels such as radio and television.
Why Smallpox is a Concern:
Because smallpox was wiped out many years ago, a case of smallpox today would be the result of an intentional act. A single confirmed case of smallpox would be considered an emergency.
Thanks to the success of vaccination, the last natural outbreak of smallpox in the U.S. occurred in 1949. By 1972, routine smallpox vaccinations for children in the U.S. were no longer needed. In 1980, smallpox was said to be wiped out worldwide, and no cases of naturally occurring smallpox have happened since.
Today, the smallpox virus is kept in two approved labs in the U.S. and Russia. However, credible concern exists that the virus was made into a weapon by some countries and that terrorists may have obtained it. Smallpox is a serious, even deadly, disease. CDC calls it a “Category A” agent. Category A agents are believed to present the greatest potential threat for harming public health.
Exposure to an aerosol release of smallpox (the virus is put in the air). On rare occasions in the past, smallpox was spread by virus carried in the air in enclosed places such as buildings, buses, and trains. The smallpox virus is not strong and is killed by sunlight and heat. In lab experiments, 90% of aerosolized smallpox virus dies within 24 hours; in the presence of sunlight, this percentage would be even greater.
Signs and Symptoms
For the first 7 to 17 days after exposure, the infected person feels fine and is not contagious (cannot spread the disease).
After 7-17 days, the first symptoms of smallpox appear. These include fever, tiredness, head and body aches, and sometimes vomiting. The fever is usually high, in the range of 101 to 104 degrees Fahrenheit. At this time, people are usually too sick to carry on their normal activities. This stage may last for 2 to 4 days.
Next, a rash appears first as small red spots on the tongue and in the mouth. A rash then appears on the skin, starting on the face and spreading to the arms and legs and then to the hands and feet. Usually the rash spreads to all parts of the body within 24 hours.
The rash becomes raised bumps and the bumps become “pustules”, which are raised, usually round and firm to the touch as if there’s a small round object under the skin.
The pustules begin to form a crust and then scab. By the end of the second week after the rash appears, most of the sores have scabbed over.
The scabs begin to fall off, leaving scars. Most scabs will have fallen off three weeks after the rash first appears.
If a smallpox outbreak happens, public health officials will use television, radio, newspapers, the Internet and other channels to inform members of the public about what to do to protect themselves and their families.If a smallpox outbreak happens, public health officials will use television, radio, newspapers, the Internet and other channels to inform members of the public about what to do to protect themselves and their families.
Officials will tell people where to go for care if they think they have smallpox.
Smallpox patients will be isolated (kept away from other people who could get sick from them) and will receive the best medical care possible. Isolation prevents the virus from spreading to others.
Anyone who has had contact with a smallpox patient will be offered smallpox vaccination as soon as possible. Then, the people who have had contact with those individuals will also be vaccinated. Following vaccination, these people will need to watch for any signs of smallpox. People who have been exposed to smallpox may be asked to take their temperatures regularly and report the results to their health department.
The smallpox vaccine may also be offered to those who have not been exposed, but would like to be vaccinated. At local clinics, the risks and benefits of the vaccine will be explained and professionals will be available to answer questions.
No one will be forced to be vaccinated, even if they have been exposed to smallpox.
To prevent smallpox from spreading, anyone who has been in contact with a person with smallpox but who decides not to get the vaccine may need to be isolated for at least 18 days. During this time, they will be checked for symptoms of smallpox.
People placed in isolation will not be able to go to work. Steps will be taken to care for their everyday needs (e.g., food and other needs).
OVER THE PAST SEVEN YEARS, more than two dozen of the world’s most esteemed microbiologists—all of whom were focused on combating bioterrorism—have died under questionable circumstances.
One was stabbed with a sword, another run over by a car, while a third was bashed over the head until dead. A scientist was found with repeated stab wounds to the chest; another was shoved under a chair (naked from the waist down); one perished in a nitrogen-filled airlock; another was carjacked, with his keys still in the ignition and a full tank of gas.
None of these men died of natural causes. Their murders were deliberate, and it’s sending a clear message to virus experts, immunologists, entomologists, and those researching bio-weaponry: your lives are in grave danger.
The fact of the matter is, we – when it comes to pandemics, we are overdue, and we're underprepared. And it's necessary that we speak with candor about it and that we move with dispatch to prepare.
Pandemics are a biologic fact of life. They're part of the microbial world of viruses and bacteria and microbes that are constantly mutating, constantly adapting. They are aggressors, constantly seeking more fruitful hosts.
Originally posted by BlackProjects
Are old vaccinations still good? What if you had two? I'm not sure why I had two..but I did.
Does military get boosters for this?
Originally posted by dgtempe
We havent even left one terror and we're nosediving into another!!!!
I was hoping to have a new president and some peace for at least a year.
I guess i better get off of that cloud #9???
Thanks for the info, Antar.
Originally posted by robertnesta
i posted this in the last thread about bio-terrorism because i think it is very important
so ill post it again here
Smallpox poses an unusually serious threat; in part, because virtually everyone is now susceptible, vaccination having stopped worldwide 20 or more years ago as a result of the eradication of the disease.
Because of waning immunity, it is probable that no more than 20% of the population is protected. Among the unprotected, case fatality rates after infection with smallpox are 30%. There is no treatment. Virus, in aerosol form, can survive for 24 hours or more and is highly infectious even at low dosages
An outbreak in which as few as 100 people were infected would quickly tax the resources of any community. There would be both actual cases and people with a fever and rash for whom the diagnosis was uncertain. In all, 200 or more patients would probably have to be treated in the first wave of cases. Most of the patients would be extremely ill with severe aching pains and high fever and would normally be hospitalized.
Hospitalization poses problems, however. Because of the risk of widespread transmission of the virus, patients would have to be confined to rooms under negative pressure that were equipped with special filters to prevent the escape of the virus. Hospitals have few rooms so ventilated; there would, for example, probably be less than 100 in the Washington, D.C., metropolitan area.
A vaccination program would have to be undertaken rapidly to protect as many as possible of those who had been in contact with the patients. Vaccination given within 3 to 4 days after exposure can protect most people against a fatal outcome and may prevent the disease entirely. It is unlikely, however, that smallpox would be diagnosed early enough and vaccination programs launched rapidly enough to prevent infection of many of the people exposed during the first wave.
Few physicians have ever seen smallpox and few, if any, have ever received training in its diagnosis. Moreover, mounting a vaccination campaign requires time unless there has been advance planning, and no city has yet done such planning. The human immunodeficiency virus epidemic and the more general issue of vaccine complications among immunosuppressed populations introduce added complexity to decision-making regarding smallpox vaccination administration.
A second wave of cases would be almost inevitable. From experiences with smallpox imported into Europe over the past 40 years, it is estimated that there would be at least 10 secondary cases for every case in the first wave or 1000 cases in all, appearing some 14 days after the first wave. Vaccination would initially be needed for health workers, essential service personnel, and contacts of patients at home and at work.
With mounting numbers of cases, contacts, and involved areas, mass vaccination would soon be the only practical approach. That would not be possible, however, because present vaccine supplies are too limited, there being approximately 5 to 7 million doses currently available.
To put this number in perspective, in New York City in 1947, 6 million people were vaccinated over approximately 1 week in response to a total of eight cases of smallpox. Moreover, there are no longer any manufacturers of smallpox vaccine. Best estimates indicate that substantial additional supplies could not be ensured sooner than 36 months from the initial outbreak.
Luckily, there are many good antiviral herbs.
The rest of this page discusses anti viral herbs that have general effects against any number of viruses.
Best natural antiviral herbal remedies
* Echinacea may be the best general herbal remedy against viruses. Echinacea works by destroying viruses & boosting the immune system so that your own body can then eliminate the virus. Especially good for flu viruses. Take supplements as directed, especially right before flu & cold season. Take in cycles of 6 weeks on & 6 weeks off as needed.
* Hypoxis Rooper (African Potato) improves the immune system according to research.
* Astragalus is also one of the valuable antiviral herbs due to its ability to boost the immune system. Take as directed when needed.
* Agathosma Betulina (buchu) is a natural antiviral that has antioxidant & antiseptic activity & helps the body rid itself of toxins. Good as a preventive.
* Mentha peperita better known as peppermint supports the body’s immune system. Scientific studies show peppermint’s is one of the anti viral herbs that shows a good effect on tuberculosis. Using peppermint essential oil or drinking lots of peppermint tea are pleasant, economical ways of using peppermint.
* Dragon’s blood is a lesser known herbal remedy for viruses. Especially useful against herpes virus. May be available in pill form. Take as directed.
* Solidago Virgaurea (Goldenrod) is one of the traditional antiviral herbs, used for hundreds of years. It seems to increase the ability of the body to fight infections.
* What could you say about garlic, an herb that has so many beneficial effects that it is treated with a reverence by many peoples of the world. Most people find garlic to be delicious too. This natural antiviral can be used for flu, cold & any number of viruses. Consume it raw or lightly cooked in any number of dishes including salads, stir frys, soups etc. Take supplements as directed making sure that supplement has active ingredients.
* Onions are also an anti viral herb though not as effective as garlic. Certainly you could come up with many dishes that contain garlic & onion which go together very well.
* Schizandra Sinesis is a powerful Chinese herb, an herbal remedy against viruses that protects against toxins and cell damage.
* Goldenseal is also an immune stimulant. Many supplements pair goldenseal with with other antiviral herbs like echinacea for a 1 - 2 punch against viruses.
* Olea Europea (from olive leaf) is a very valuable herb & natural antiviral. It helps fight numerous germs. The positive effects of Olive leaf have recently been proven in a variety of clinical studies. Olive leaf also stimulates the immune system.
It may also help stop the production of enzymes that a retrovirus, such as HIV, needs in order to change the RNA of a healthy cell. I’ve used it in place of root canal surgery to good effect. Take supplements as directed but you may need to double or triple dose the first day you are symptomatic.
* Juniper is also an excellent anti viral herbal remedy, excellent against flu & cold virus. Makes a good cold season tea that could be sipped throughout the day.
* Lemon balm also makes a good anti viral herbal tea & is especially valued as anti-herpes.
* Licorice is yet another herb that makes an excellent tea. Effective anti viral herb against many viruses. Take supplement or make a tea out of licorice root.
* Shiitake mushroom is also one of our favorite antiviral herbs. Consume in various dishes or use supplements as directed.
* Ginger, like garlic is a superb herb with numerous health benefits including its natural antiviral effects. Use as a tea or in numerous dishes. Juice a small slice along with fruits like apples, carrots, celery, [parsley - to taste for a wonderfully healthy concoction.
Other natural anti viral herbs
Some other herbal remedies against viruses are not as well known for that purpose but have been cited as antiviral. They include:
* Cat’s claw
* St. John’s wort
Salvator Giustra is a NYC Teaching Fellow, health researcher, clinical psychotherapist & computer scientist. He currently runs three websites (Healthy World) that advance the idea that good health is based on simple, traditional, commonsense knowledge which research tends to support repeatedly. For info on how water affects health, visit: Healthy Water For info on using herbal remedies, visit: Article Source: www.NewAgeArticles.com
FOCUS@HEALTH; Ancient smallpox described as killer of kings, commoners
What is smallpox? SMALLPOX and bio-terrorism. The theme for this week's column.
What is smallpox?
Smallpox (from the Latin words "varius" meaning "stained" or "varus"
meaning "mark on the skin" or "raised bumps") is a very contagious,
sometimes fatal, viral infection, that has claimed millions and millions of
lives in the various pandemics around the globe since around 10,000 BC,
when it first appeared in agricultural settlements in northeastern Africa.
Smallpox has been one of mankind's greatest scourges ever.
If you're like most people, you currently have no plan regarding a smallpox outbreak or a bioterrorism incident other than to follow the herd and do what the government and medical authorities tell you to do if something terrible happens.
Then, in January of 2005, Bob Dorgin of the Los Angeles Times reported of a smallpox exercise:
WASHINGTON — At 9:03 a.m., a TV broadcast reported an outbreak of smallpox in four European countries, and a terrorist group tied to Al Qaeda claimed responsibility for spreading one of history's most dreaded diseases.
By midafternoon, as the president of the United States and leaders of major Western nations struggled to contain a cascade of horrors, authorities confirmed 3,320 smallpox cases across the globe. They warned of 660,000 potential victims, major political upheavals and a collapsing world economy in the weeks ahead.
That was the fake but terrifying scenario played out in a darkened hotel ballroom here Friday by former U.S. Secretary of State Madeleine Albright and 11 senior European diplomats and politicians. For seven hours, they grappled with a grim tabletop exercise that fused fact and fiction to help educate government officials about the growing threat of bioterrorism
The largely ineffective response of the "leaders," who huddled at a U-shaped table before 150 invited observers from the U.S. and foreign governments, exposed some of the likely problems real leaders would face in a bioterrorism assault.
Note: This is a PDF file that you must download and print. At this time I do NOT sell printed copies. WebTVers can NOT purchase this file because WebTV will not read PDF files.
In this Special Bioterrorism Report, I share unconventional information from 19th and early 20th century doctors and healers who successfully helped people survive smallpox, plague, and other dangerously contagious diseases while many of those receiving conventional medical care at home and in hospitals were dropping like flies.
The first people to recieve the vaccines will be the military and first responders, after that the supply will be depleated.
Hospitals will shut their doors an allow noone in until the all clear, so what ever your ailment the hospital will not be there for you. Many lives wil be lost because of this fact alone.