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US M193 5.56x45mm - This bullet is fired from the US armed forces' first-generation smaller-calibre rifle, the M16A1. The large permanent cavity it produces, shown in the wound profile (Fig. 4), was observed by surgeons who served in Vietnam, but the tissue disruption mechanism responsible was not clear until the importance of bullet fragmentation as a cause of tissue disruption was worked out and described. As shown on the wound profile, this full-metal-jacketed bullet travels point-forward in tissue for about 12cm after which it yaws to 90°, flattens, and breaks at the cannelure (groove around bullet midsection into which the cartridge neck is crimped). The bullet point flattens but remains in one piece, retaining about 60 per cent of the original bullet weight. The rear portion breaks into many fragments that penetrate up to 7cm radially from the bullet path. The temporary cavity stretch, its effect increased by perforation and weakening of the tissue by fragments, then causes a much enlarged permanent cavity by detaching tissue pieces. The degree of bullet fragmentation decreases with increased shooting distance (as striking velocity decreases), as shown in Fig. 5. At a shooting distance over about 100m the bullet breaks at the cannelure, forming two large fragments and, at over 200m, it no longer breaks, although it continues to flatten somewhat, until 400m. This consistent change in deformation/fragmentation pattern has an important forensic application. It can be used to estimate shooting distance if the bullet is recovered in the body and has penetrated only soft tissue.
A bullet which is fully enclosed in a metal jacket, as are virtually all military rifle bullets today, will start to turn around a lateral axis at some distance after entering the body. Once it starts to turn, the rate of turning increases rapidly; the angle of incidence reaches 90 degrees and the bullet continues turning until it is travelling nearly tail first. After that, it can partly turn several more times before entering the last phase, when it will again be travelling tail first. Depending on its construction, a full-metal-jacketed bullet can deform or break up because of the stresses placed on it during turning, but deformation or break-up of a full-metal-jacketed bullet is a by-product of turning and not an independent process, although, once it happens, the deformation or break-up adds to the wounding effect because of the increase in the surface area of bullet material pressing against the tissues.
The turning, or "tumbling", of a bullet is thus the critical mechanism resulting in severe injury, and the likelihood of causing a severe wound will depend on how far a bullet penetrates the body before turning. An ammunition designer who is intent on inflicting the greatest possible damage will want to have the bullet turn as soon as possible, thus achieving the same effect (rapid transfer of most or all of the bullet's kinetic energy) as with the outlawed dumdum bullet. A designer wishing to avoid severe wounds will want the bullet to travel as far as possible before turning: a soldier hit in the arm or leg will be out of action temporarily but is unlikely to suffer permanent injury or to die.
I don't mean hunched over like doubled over.
Originally posted by jgrant641
Although I am a firm believer in the gunman on the grassy knoll, I don’t think that photo is accurate.
I think the silhouette we are shown there doesn’t move during or after the head shot is fired, plus that area is, if I am not mistaken about the point where Zapruder was filming.
It was my understanding that the gunman was to have been farther to the left of that image over that white wall behind the trees. This silhouette appears seemingly in the open public.
Originally posted by Zaphod58
JFK: Beyond the Magic Bullet is the name of the show on Discovery Channel. They go into great detail analyzing the Zapruder film, using computer models, and even recreating the shots, using the same gun used from the Book Depository. It's a VERY interesting show.
Originally posted by livenlearn
Help me understand something. I've watched this video many many times, along with the still photos. There's obviously a "flap" or whatever that covers pratically the whole right side of JFK's face after the fatal shot. Where is this flap coming from?
To me, it doesn't look like the back of his head, but perhaps the top, or apparently the left side of his head? But yet when I read about the back of his head being blown apart, I don't see that in the photo's in the Zapruder film; the back of his head looks intact, unless it was the back left part. Am I missing something?
If it was to top, that doesn't really make sense does it?
If it was the back, then that's an incredible large piece of skull, hair, and whatever else that flopped over the right side of his face.
If it's an exit wound, then he had to be shot from the back left. None of this to me suggests anything from the front.
Again, am I missing something?