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Because of general relativity, spacetime is not a static entity. It is a dynamic and ever-changing fabric within which the locations of all galaxies are woven. Galaxies are not themselves moving very much, but they appear to move to us, because of new, cosmic real estate continually injected, increasing their distance from us.
It is this creation of new spacetime, and the rate at which it is being created, which determines how fast a galaxy appears to be moving away from us.
So what is the universe expanding into? When new spacetime is created, into what do the edges go? The answer depends on whether or not there are edges.
If we live in an infinite universe, then the answer has to be nothing. Adding more fabric to infinity doesn't make more infinity. An infinite universe would have no edges that expand and the question is meaningless. In such a universe, there would be no 'outside'.
On the other hand, if the universe is finite, with a boundary that we have not yet discovered, then the answer may be that we are expanding into something. If that is true however, then the boundary is so far away that we cannot see it and it can therefore never, ever affect us. We have already seen photons that have been travelling since the universe was only 500 million years old. Anything much further away lies beyond our detection forever. Given that our universe is expanding - if we cannot see the boundary now, this expansion guarantees we never will - it will forevermore get further and further away. it will always lie beyond our detection.
originally posted by: LittleByLittle
Empty space that was there in the beginning?
Also this depends on the space the material/energy we call the universe from the big bang is infinite in all directions or shaped as a 3D curved space? If it is curved space then it will be degrees instead of distance and you can go around 360 degrees in any direction to come back to the same spot.
If we go by holographic idea then everything can be an illusion and we believe reality is in a certain way even if it is just a matrix. Like us playing a WOW character believing we are inside a world that is created by a skilled programmer.