reply to post by JBA2848
You are correct.
Drilling and Production Testing the
Methane Hydrate Resource Potential Associated with the Barrow Gas Fields
Borough Of North Slope
Once project scope was developed, a procurement process was implemented to engage the necessary service and equipment providers, and finalize
project cost estimates. Based on cost proposals from vendors, total project estimated cost is $17.88 million dollars, inclusive of design work,
permitting, barging, ice road/pad construction, drilling, completion, tie-in, long-term production testing and surveillance, data analysis and
technology transfer. The PRA project team and North Slope have recommended moving forward to the execution phase of this project.
Something else to consider:
Evidence for a Global Warming at the Termination I Boundary and Its Possible Cosmic Dust Cause
On the other hand, evidence of an elevated cosmic ray flux and of a major interstellar dust incursion around 15,800 years B.P. suggest that a
cosmic ray wind driven incursion of interstellar dust and gas may have played a key role through its activation of the Sun and alteration of light
transmission through the interplanetary medium.
So, how much influence do we have on cosmic dust?
However, since the climatic system incorporates negative feedback relationships which give it some degree of stability and tend to maintain it in
a given climatic state, be it glacial or interglacial, destabilizing perturbations must exceed a certain critical size if they are to effect any
large-scale change. Those that are too small in magnitude or duration will fail to change the system's prevailing climatic state. Weather noise
probably belongs to this subcritical category.
I think we've had a few volcanoes that have lofted more particulates and other greenhouse gasses into the atmosphere, etc than all human activity
TA, do you have any data on volcanic eruption volumes that can be compared with estimated human pollution volume?
It has been suggested that global synchrony might have been achieved through some kind of interhemispheric linking, such as changes in atmospheric
CO2 concentration (Corlis, 1982; Manabe and Broccoli, 1985; Johnson and Andrews, 1986). However, by itself, CO2 produces a relatively small
greenhouse warming effect. For example, the Vostok ice core measurements of Barnola et al. (1987) show that at the end of the ice age CO2
concentration rose by 25% from 195 ppm to 260 ppm
Ok, so what about methane?
Compared with carbon dioxide, methane underwent a much larger percentage increase at the end of the ice age, doubling from about 360 ppb to 725
ppb, as determined from measurements of the Summit, Greenland ice core (Chappellaz et al, 1993). However, since its absolute concentration is 1000
fold less than that of CO2, it is not a major contributor to greenhouse warming. Rather, its increase also is most likely a response to climatic
change rather than an instigator, the rise in CH4 concentration being attributed to the increased abundance of vegetation which is a major
producer of this gas
Again, it seems as though methane is a trailing indicator rather than an initiating factor in considering changes in climate.
However, studies of benthic foraminifera in the Atlantic suggest that NADW production did not flip to its interglacial high-flux mode until around
12,500 14C yrs B.P., or about 500 14C years after the onset of the Bölling (Jansen and Veum, 1990; Veum et al., 1992; Charles and Fairbanks, 1992).
So, the onset of NADW production cannot be the agent that caused the rapid warming at the beginning of the Böllin
So the diluting of the salinity is a trailing indicator to fluctuations in temperature.
The dramatic climatic shifts that took place during the Pleistocene may have had an extraterrestrial cause. One indication comes from the
occurrence in ice age polar ice of high concentrations of 10Be, a 1.5 Myr half-life isotope generated when cosmic ray protons impact nitrogen and
oxygen nuclei in the atmosphere (Raisbeck et al., 1981, 1987; Beer et al., 1984a, 1985, 1988, 1992).
For example, the profiles shown in Figures 6 and 7 suggest that the cosmic ray background intensity was quite
high on several past occasions.
(click on thumbnail for larger image)
A variety of evidence indicates that the core of our Galaxy (Sgr A*), which lies 23,000 light years away, releases intense volleys of relativistic
electrons about every 10 4 years or so, and that these fronts, or galactic superwaves, travel radially outward through the Galaxy with such minimal
dispersion that at the time of their passage they are able to elevate the cosmic ray background energy density in the solar neighborhood as much as
10^2 to 10^3 fold above current levels.
That's a pretty substantial increase in background cosmic energy density.
Galactic superwaves are sufficiently intense and prolonged that they would propel the resulting interstellar/nebular dust and gas into the solar
system which would have had a substantial effect on the Earth-Sun climate system.
But the thing said dust, right?
There is plenty of frozen material both in and around the solar system which could be vaporized and propelled into the inner solar system by a
Galactic superwave. Observations of infrared excesses in nearby stars suggest that the solar system, like these other star systems, is surrounded by a
light-absorbing dust shell, and may contain about 103 times more dust than had been previously supposed on the basis of IRAS observations of the
zodiacal dust cloud (Aumann, 1988)
Got it, space dust. Lots of it everywhere throughout space near stars. Makes sense.
The unusually high concentrations of HF and HCl acids found in Byrd Station, Antarctic ice dating about 15,800 year B.P., may be residues from one
such interstellar dust incursion. Hammer, et al. (1997) note that it is difficult to explain these eight peaks as having a volcanic origin because the
combined acid output which spans a period of about a century exceeds by 18 fold the largest volcanic signal observed in the Byrd ice core record and
also because the recurrence of the events is unusually regular, a behavior that is not seen in volcanic eruptions.
Too regular to be volcanic, got it. Things in space rotate and operate in cyclical patterns.
The subsequent deglacial warming could have been due to a combination of factors: a) destruction of the ozone layer due to the presence of
interstellar halides allowing UV penetration, b) increase of the solar constant due to light backscattered from the zodiacal dust cloud, c) shift of
the incident solar spectrum to the infrared resulting in greater absorption of the solar beam (reduced scattering from high albedo surfaces), and d) a
major increase in the Sun's luminosity and activation of its photosphere and corona due to the dust's effect on the Sun (LaViolette, 1983a,
More space dust, LOTS more. Dust digging out holes in the ozone layer (what no SUVs?), dust adding to the ambient background warmth of near-sol space,
dust acting like a lens concentrating solar radiation on the earth, and dust causing the sun to heat up.
Got it, space dust.
Available data suggests that these warmings were initiated neither by changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration nor by a major alteration in the
rate of North Atlantic deep-water production. Moreover it is not clear whether these mechanisms are capable of producing warmings and coolings of the
kind of magnitude, geographical extent, and abruptness observed at the Termination I boundary. Polar ocean front migrations and weather fluctuations
also do not offer an adequate explanation
Evidence that the solar system resides in a dust congested environs, of a current influx of interstellar dust, of acid residues in 15,800 year old
polar ice bearing a solar cycle signature, of episodes of accelerated deposition of cosmogenic beryllium, Ir, and Ni during the Pleistocene, and of
intense solar flare activity at the end of the ice age together suggest that the Termination I29 deglaciation, and other climatic transitions before
it, may have been extraterrestrially induced.
But how are you gonna blame the earthlings for this?
Such extraterrestrial disturbances could account for the abruptness and global coherence of climatic transitions observed in the terrestrial
record. Moreover such short-period stochastic forcings could account for a large percentage of the variance in the Earth's ice volume record which is
not explained by orbital cycle forcing.
Um, still can't hang this hat in anyone's house yet.
edit on 15-12-2011 by jadedANDcynical because: more to say