Roselli was also a member of the mafia, a high ranking "official" in fact, and one whom was in charge (it's alleged) of important mafia contacts for its assassination projects. It's also claimed that he was, much like Giancana, scheduled to appear for what was for him a second appearance before the Senate Intelligence Committee concerning the assassination of JFK but before he could attend. Reasoning for this was beause he himself had now been murdered.
Suspicious giving his pending appearance before the commitee most definitely and the fact he was clearly murdered adds to the suspicion as he was found after heading out to a golf game but never making it there, a full 10 days later dismembered, stuffed into an oil drum and also dropped into the ocean off Miami.
Roselli discovered in 1966 that the FBI had been collecting information on his activities. Attempts were made to deport him as an illegal alien. Roselli moved to Los Angeles where he went into early retirement. It was at this time he told attorney, Edward Morgan: "The last of the sniper teams dispatched by Robert Kennedy in 1963 to assassinate Fidel Castro were captured in Havana. Under torture they broke and confessed to being sponsored by the CIA and the US government. At that point, Castro remarked that, 'If that was the way President Kennedy wanted it, Cuba could engage in the same tactics'. The result was that Castro infiltrated teams of snipers into the US to kill Kennedy".(Source)
Morgan took the story to Jack Anderson and Drew Pearson. The story was then passed on to Earl Warren. He did not want anything to do with it and so the information was then passed to the FBI. When they failed to investigate the story Anderson wrote an article entitled "President Johnson is sitting on a political H-bomb" about Roselli's story. It has been suggested that Roselli started this story at the request of his friends in the Central Intelligence Agency in order to divert attention from the investigation being carried out by Jim Garrison.
In 1975 Frank Church and his Select Committee on Intelligence Activities interviewed Roselli about his relationship with the secret services. It emerged from this interview that Roselli and fellow crime boss, Sam Giancana had taken part in talks with the CIA about the possibility of murdering Fidel Castro. Roselli also claimed that a CIA hit team that had been dispatched to Cuba had been "turned" and used to kill Kennedy.(Source) - Same Link as Before -
The following year the Select Committee on Intelligence Activities decided to recall Roselli. Soon afterwards Fred Black called him and warned him that Santos Trafficante had taken out a contract on his life and that the "Cubans were after him".
In July 1976, Roselli left home in Florida to play golf. He never arrived at the golf course and ten days later his body was found floating in an oil drum in Miami's Dumfoundling Bay. He had been garroted. Roselli's legs had been sawed off and squashed into the drum with the rest of his body.
Jack Anderson, of the Washington Post, interviewed Roselli just before he was murdered. On 7th September, 1976, the newspaper reported Roselli as saying : "When Oswald was picked up, the underworld conspirators feared he would crack and disclose information that might lead to them. This almost certainly would have brought a massive US crackdown on the Mafia. So Jack Ruby was ordered to eliminate Oswald."
The House Select Committee on Assassinations managed to obtain the records of an FBI wire tap on Santos Trafficante. On the tape Trafficante was heard to say "now only two people know who killed Kennedy and they aren't talking."
In an interview in April, 1992, Tosh Plumlee claimed that Roselli had been killed because he knew too much about JM WAVE, Operation Mongoose, and the assassination of John F. Kennedy.
George de Mohrenschildt:
George was a man who allegedly ended up befrinding in Dallas, quite possibly because of his connections to him as well as other members of people on this list, he was then to be called to the House Assassinations Committee. In fact, merely 2 hours before his death an investigator from the committee came to interview him but De Mohrenschildt was nowhere to be seen.
He was then found dead of a gunshot wound, one which was claimed to have been from himself via suicide, in March 1977. In a manuscript found afterwards though, de Mohrenschildt very much supported Oswald's view of himself as being a patsy which is a potential motive for his deahmaybe?
George de Mohrenschildt was recalled to America to testify before the Warren Commission. He was asked about the claim of Marina Oswald that he knew about Oswald's attempt to kill General Edwin Walker. After giving evidence he returned to Haiti.
On 5th September 1976 De Mohrenschildt sent a message to George H. W. Bush, who was at that time director of the CIA: "Maybe you will be able to bring a solution to the hopeless situation I find myself in. My wife and I find ourselves surrounded by some vigilantes; our phone bugged; and we are being followed everywhere. Either FBI is involved in this or they do not want to accept my complaints. We are driven to insanity by the situation. I have been behaving like a damn fool ever since my daughter Nadya died from (cystic fibrosis) over three years ago. I tried to write, stupidly and unsuccessfully, about Lee H Oswald and must have angered a lot of people I do not know. But to punish an elderly man like myself and my highly nervous and sick wife is really too much. Could you do something to remove the net around us? This will be my last request for help and I will not annoy you any more."
Two months later George de Mohrenschildt was committed to a mental institution. According to his wife, Jeanne de Mohrenschildt, he was suffering from depression. He was taken to Parkland Hospital and underwent electroshock therapy.
In February 1977, Willem Oltmans, met George de Mohrenschildt at the library of Bishop College in Dallas, where he taught French. Oltmans later told the House Select Committee on Assassinations: "I couldn't believe my eyes. The man had changed drastically... he was nervous, trembling. It was a scared, a very, very scared person I saw. I was absolutely shocked, because I knew de Mohrenschildt as a man who wins tennis matches, who is always suntanned, who jogs every morning, who is as healthy as a bull."(Source)
According to Willem Oltmans, he confessed to being involved in the assassination of John F. Kennedy. "I am responsible. I feel responsible for the behaviour of Lee Harvey Oswald... because I guided him. I instructed him to set it up." Oltmans claimed that de Mohrenschildt had admitted serving as a middleman between Lee Harvey Oswald and H. L. Hunt in an assassination plot involving other Texas oilmen, anti-Castro Cubans, and elements of the FBI and CIA.
Oltmans told the HSCA: "He begged me to take him out of the country because they are after me." On 13th February 1977, Oltmans took de Mohrenschildt to his home in Amsterdam where they worked on his memoirs. Over the next few weeks de Mohrenschildt claimed he knew Jack Ruby and argued that Texas oilmen joined with intelligence operatives to arrange the assassination of John F. Kennedy.
Willem Oltmans arranged for George de Mohrenschildt to meet a Dutch publisher and the head of Dutch national television. The two men then travelled to Brussels. When they arrived, Oltmans mentioned that an old friend of his, a Soviet diplomat, would be joining them a bit later for lunch. De Mohrenschildt said he wanted to take a short walk before lunch. Instead, he fled to a friend's house and after a few days he flew back to the United States. He later accused Oltmans of betraying him. Russ Baker suggests in his book Family of Secrets: "Perhaps, and this would be strictly conjecture, de Mohrenschildt saw what it meant that he, like Oswald, was being placed in the company of Soviets. He was being made out to be a Soviet agent himself. And once that happened, his ultimate fate was clear."
The House Select Committee on Assassinations were informed of George de Mohrenschildt's return to the United States and sent its investigator, Gaeton Fonzi, to find him. Fonzi discovered he was living with his daughter in Palm Beach. However, Fonzi was not the only person looking for de Mohrenschildt. On 15th March 1977 he had a meeting with Edward Jay Epstein that had been arranged by the Reader's Digest magazine. Epstein offered him $4,000 for a four-day interview.
On 27th March, 1977, George de Mohrenschildt arrived at the Breakers Hotel in Palm Beach and spent the day being interviewed by Epstein. According to Epstein, they spent the day talking about his life and career up until the late 1950s.
Two days later Edward Jay Epstein asked him about Lee Harvey Oswald. As he wrote in his diary: "Then, this morning, I asked him about why he, a socialite in Dallas, sought out Oswald, a defector. His explanation, if believed, put the assassination in a new and unnerving context. He said that although he had never been a paid employee of the CIA, he had "on occasion done favors" for CIA connected officials. In turn, they had helped in his business contacts overseas. By way of example, he pointed to the contract for a survey of the Yugoslavian coast awarded to him in 1957. He assumed his "CIA connections" had arranged it for him and he provided them with reports on the Yugoslav officials in whom they had expressed interest."
Epstein and de Mohrenschildt, broke for lunch and decided to meet again at 3 p.m. George De Mohrenschildt returned to his room where he found a card from Gaeton Fonzi, an investigator working for the House Select Committee on Assassinations. George De Mohrenschildt's body was found later that day. He had apparently committed suicide by shooting himself in the mouth.
On 11th May, 1978, Jeanne de Mohrenschildt gave an interview to the Fort Worth Star-Telegram, where she said that she did not accept that her husband had committed suicide. She also said that she believed Lee Harvey Oswald was an agent of the United States, possibly of the CIA, and that she was convinced he did not kill John F. Kennedy. She then went onto say: "They may get me too, but I'm not afraid... It's about time somebody looked into this thing."
Nicoletti was, much like de Mohrenschildt and some others mentioned, was said to appear before the Select House Committee on Assassinations concerning the death of JFK and much like de Mohrenschildt in particular, Nicoletti died under what was very suspicious circumstances, in fact it was, as far as I'm aware, the exact same day as de Mohrenschildt giving the impression that they are connected indeed..
He was found in a Chicago parking lot with three gun shot wounds to the back of his head/neck.
It was claimed that Nicoletti was not only involved in the assassination itself, but he may have been one of the assassins, possibly the assassin most believe was Oswald.
Charles Nicoletti was a leading figure in the Mafia in Chicago. He worked under Tony Accardo and Sam Giancana and got the reputation as an effective contract killer. He was also involved in the CIA plots to overthrow Fidel Castro in Cuba.(Source)
According to James Files, Nicoletti was one of the gunmen who took part in the assassination of John F. Kennedy.
On 29th March, 1977, Charles Nicoletti was murdered in Chicago. He had been shot three times in the back of the head. George De Mohrenschildt died the same day. Both men were due to appear before the Select House Committee on Assassinations where they were to be asked about their involvement in the assassination of John F. Kennedy.
Carlos Prio Socarras:
Socarras was at one time the president of Cuba, but was deposed by a military coup led by Fulgencio Batista on March 10, 1952, Socarras then fled to America.
It was claimed that he was later involved in the controversial bay of pigs operation and had some information on the assasination of JFK. Because of this he was also wanted by the Select House Committee on Assassinations and like the previous 2 men mentioned Socarras was also seemingly assasinated himself, around the same time as Nicoletti and de Mohrenschildt! A mere 6 days after them in fact, something which is by far too close for comfort.
He found dying of gun shot wounds outside his home in Miami in April 1977. The official story was suicide but why would he do this outside his garage next to him home? It doesn't make sense
Carlos Prio Socarrás was born in Bahía Honda, Cuba on 14th July 1903. Prio became involved in politics while a law student at the University of Havana. He spent two years in prison for his anti-government activities. After his release he took part in the coup that deposed Gerardo Machado's dictatorship in 1933 and helped organize the Partido Revolucionario Cubano Auténtico.(Source)
In 1944 President Ramón Grau appointed him as his Minister of Labour. He became a popular minister and in 1948 he replaced Grau as president. However, he never kept his promise of removing the Mafia from Cuba. He also appeared to acquire considerable wealth during his period in government.
In 1952 elections the Cuban People's Party was expected to form the new government. During the election campaign General Fulgencio Batista, with the support of the armed forces, ousted Prio and took control of the country. Prio fled to the United States.
In 1953, Fidel Castro, with an armed group of 123 men and women, attacked the Moncada army barracks. The plan to overthrow Batista ended in disaster and although only eight were killed in the fighting, another eighty were murdered by the army after they were captured. Castro was lucky that the lieutenant who arrested him ignored orders to have him executed and instead delivered him to the nearest civilian prison.
Following considerable pressure from the Cuban population, Fulgencio Batista decided to release Fidel Castro after he had served only two years of his sentence. Batista also promised elections but when it became clear that they would not take place, Castro left for Mexico where he began to plan another attempt to overthrow the Cuban government. Prio used some of the money to support the efforts of Castro against the Batista regime. However, he broke with Castro after he gained power in 1959.
Prio worked as a property developer and businessman in Miami. It was claimed that Prio was involved in the Bay of Pigs operation. It was also suggested that he had information on the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. He was also linked in testimony with Jack Ruby and Frank Sturgis.
In 1977 Prio was wanted for questioning by the Select Committee on Assassinations. He was found dead from gunshot wounds on 5th April, 1977, outside the garage of his Miami Beach home. He died at the same time as George De Mohrenschildt and Charlie Nicoletti, two other men due to appear before the committee. Officially Carlos Prio committed suicide, however, in an article, Did the CIA kill Carlos Prio?, David Miller suggested in had been murdered.
Information above was obtained from this link but was wrote in my own writing apart from the clearly shown external material of course.
Here's a list of some more aptly named "Convenient Deaths" to ponder.
Now, make of it what you wish but IMHO there is absolutely no way that all of these individuals, especially the ones mentioned in the small list above could have all died from simply being in the wrong place at the wrong time or through mere accidents or whatever. Something most certainly went on here to shut these people up and to suppress the information they had. And information certainly seems to have been suppressed as the deaths of all these people are extremely convenient to those who were seemingly really involved and these same deats seriously hindered investigations.
I mean just take this quick snippet from the list above also for consideration which I find particuarly interesting.
The House Select Committee on Assassinations managed to obtain the records of an FBI wire tap on Santos Trafficante. On the tape Trafficante was heard to say "now only two people know who killed Kennedy and they aren't talking."(Source)
In an interview in April, 1992, Tosh Plumlee claimed that Roselli had been killed because he knew too much about JM WAVE, Operation Mongoose, and the assassination of John F. Kennedy.
Supposing this is in fact true, then it most definitely seems o point to the fact that people are being "killed off" for simply knowing too much. Also it mustn’t be forgotten that some on the list above even claimed an assassination was about to take place. Rose cheramie for example, and not long after it had occurred also which gives them a huge boost in credibility IMHO as it does indeed show they certainly had prior knowledge to the events that occurred on 22nd November 1963.
Anyway, that being so, let's move on and have a look at another area of immense importance concerning the assassination, this time it's an area which was actually involved in investigating the true events which took place. Or one would hope so anyway.
The Warren Commission
It wasn't long after the assassination of JFK that It was decided by the new president, the only man who was to benefit from the assassination and the previous vice president, Lyndon B. Johnson, that there would quite simply Have to be an official report into the assassination and of course into all involved. Maybe this was to discover the true events, or maybe it was to win public support that he desperately needed all of a sudden, we'll never know but the commission was set up to ascertain, evaluate and report upon the facts relating to how the assassination could have occurred as well as address the "conspiracy theories" at the time of the now Late President John F. Kennedy.
The main individuals involved in achieving this are listed below.
Main members serving on the Warren Commission:
- Earl Warren, Chief Justice of the United States, former Governor and attorney general of California, Chair;
- Richard B. Russell, Democratic Senator from Georgia and chairman of the Senate Armed Services Committee, former Governor of Georgia, and county attorney in that State;
- John Sherman Cooper, Republican Senator from Kentucky, former county and circuit judge in Kentucky, and United States Ambassador to India;
- Thomas Hale Boggs, Democratic Representative from Louisiana and majority whip in the House of Representatives;
- Gerald R. Ford, Republican Representative from Michigan and chairman of the House Republican Conference;
- Allen W. Dulles, lawyer and former Director of the Central Intelligence Agency;
- John J. McCloy, lawyer, former President of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, and former United States High Commissioner for Germany.
- J. Lee Rankin, Appointed U.S. Solicitor General in 1956. He would spend his later years practicing law in New York City.
Almost a year after it was officially to begin, September 24, 1964 the 888 page report was finally concluded. From there time looking at the case though It claimed by the investigators that Oswald was the sole Assassin and he also acted alone. It claimed that the man who shot and killed Oswald, Jack Ruby, also acted alone in his actions. Something that has been heavily disputed over the years among many more criticisms that have been offered surrounding the Warren Commission, other such claims being the fact that the commission never explained how it was possible that bystander James Tague was injured during the shooting for example as he suffered a cut to his cheek from what was a bullet fragment (verified by authorities in the vicinity) despite the fact he was standing over 500 feet away from where Oswald was allegedly shooting from according to the warren Commission. Other claims were that the commission claimed Jack Ruby had absolutely no connections to the Mafia, something that was proven completely false by the HSCA (House Select Committee on Assassinations) and the fact that the commission also failed to take any witness testimonies from important witnesses when possible to name a few. Many witnesses were seemingly even ignored as they pointed to a grassy knoll shooter, not one just from the Texas school book depository building like the commission concludes.
The House Select Committee on Assassinations even submitted a report in 1979 criticising the report and even the performance of the FBI agents themselves as well as other agencies. The report also criticized what it characterized as the FBI's suspicious reluctance to thoroughly investigate the possibility of a conspiracy to assassinate the president. That being so, the facts are that the commission actually relied almost entirely on the FBI report, meaning for that reason alone and discounting the many theories as to why the commission may be wrong we should take the claims of supposed fact by the commission with a grain of salt indeed.
Also, here's another interesting link highlighting key points where the Warren Commission failed it's duties.
So here is what the Commission officially concluded in 1964:
1.) The shots which killed President Kennedy and wounded Governor Connally were fired from the sixth floor window at the southeast corner of the Texas School Book Depository.(Source)
2.) The weight of the evidence indicates that there were three shots fired.
3.) Although it is not necessary to any essential findings of the Commission to determine just which shot hit Governor Connally, there is very persuasive evidence from the experts to indicate that the same bullet which pierced the President's throat also caused Governor Connally's wounds. However, Governor Connally's testimony and certain other factors have given rise to some difference of opinion as to this probability but there is no question in the mind of any member of the Commission that all the shots which caused the President's and Governor Connally's wounds were fired from the sixth floor window of the Texas School Book Depository.
4.) The shots which killed President Kennedy and wounded Governor Connally were fired by Lee Harvey Oswald.
5.) Oswald killed Dallas Police Patrolman J. D. Tippit approximately 45 minutes after the assassination.
6.) Within 80 minutes of the assassination and 35 minutes of the Tippit killing Oswald resisted arrest at the theatre by attempting to shoot another Dallas police officer.
7.) The Commission has found no evidence that either Lee Harvey Oswald or Jack Ruby was part of any conspiracy, domestic or foreign, to assassinate President Kennedy.
8.) In its entire investigation the Commission has found no evidence of conspiracy, subversion, or disloyalty to the U.S. Government by any Federal, State, or local official.
9.) On the basis of the evidence before the Commission it concludes that, Oswald acted alone.
For those interested, here is the entire Warren Commission report,
- Warren Commision - The Entire 888 Page Archive -
Quick link to each section here:
Title Page, Members, and Transmittal Letter
Chapter 1: Summary and Conclusions
Chapter 2: The Assassination
Chapter 3: The Shots from the Texas School Book Depository
Chapter 4: The Assassin
Chapter 5: Detention and Death of Oswald
Chapter 6: Investigation of Possible Conspiracy
Chapter 7: Lee Harvey Oswald: Background and Possible Motives
Chapter 8: The Protection of the President
Appendix 1: Press Release Announcing Appointment of Commission
Appendix 2: Press Release Announcing Appointment of Commission
Appendix 3: Pub. Law 88-202
Appendix 4: Biographical Information and Acknowledgments
Appendix 5: List of Witnesses
Appendix 6: Commission Procedures for the Taking of Testimony
Appendix 7: A Brief History of Presidential Protection
Appendix 8: Medical Reports from Doctors at Parkland Memorial Hospital, Dallas, Tex.
Appendix 9: Autopsy Report and Supplemental Report
Appendix 10: Expert Testimony
Appendix 11: Reports Relating to the Interrogation of Lee Harvey Oswald at the Dallas Police Department
Appendix 12: Speculations and Rumors
Appendix 13: Biography of Lee Harvey Oswald
Appendix 14: Analysis of Lee Harvey Oswald's Finances From June 13, 1962, Through November 22, 1963
Appendix 15: Transactions Between Lee Harvey Oswald and Marina Oswald, and the U.S. Department of State and the Immigration and Naturalization Service of the Department of Justice
Appendix 16: A Biography of Jack Ruby
Appendix 17: Polygraph Examination of Jack Ruby
Appendix 18: Footnotes
The Warren Commition final report:
November 22nd 1963 - The Assassination of a President
The assassination of any president of any country at anytime was always going to be a highly debated, studied and of course highly traumatising experience, especially for those who were witness to the event. The assassination to president Kennedy however will be an event that will always stick out in people’s minds now. Reasoning for this is perhaps because it's still a relatively recent event, possibly because Kennedy among many was a popular figure (although he was most certainly not without his own enemies) or perhaps it was the sheer nature of the events afterwards such as a feeling of injustice that the man said to have been responsible was never fully punished as he himself was to then be shot down. It's all speculation of course but perhaps the true reasoning for this story sticking out in people’s minds and the continuation for the story to this day is because of the facts and the revelations that were to be revealed and discussed afterwards. Not to mention the sheer amount of holes in the stories by official and otherwise. Speaking of the investigation however, it must be noted that the assassination story from the Warren Commission, an investigation which set out to fairly determine the series of events which had occurred, was IMHO to completely fail it's duties seemingly leaving huge gaping holes for researchers and scholars to pick apart as well as many other discrepancies already mentioned previously.
Such gaping holes in the investigation that are worth a mention here is the fact that the single bullet theory for example, possibly the most debated factor in this entire case doesn't quite seem to fully explain all of Connelly’s injuries as well as the near fatal wound to Kennedy's back and throat. Not just that but after this, according to the Warren Commission, the bullet remained seemingly completely unharmed itself. An impossibility one would think surely?
Anyway, that will be discussed and looked at soon but another point I'd like to make is the amount of shooters that were present here as I believe, once again, something that differs to the official investigation and also something that has also been heavily debated over the years by many as according to the warren commission Oswald acted completely alone but yet again, simple facts tell us otherwise as photographic evidence as well as witness statements point towards a potential grassy knoll shooter or a shooter from another location even but not just from the Texas school book depository building at least. In fact something that seemingly backs this up is the people on the ground and their reaction to the shooting as not particularly long after the shooting to Kennedy had occurred, many people witness to the event actually raced up the grassy knoll itself in search of the shooter as shown in this image below. Many of them police officers also.
So, if Oswald did in fact shoot the president on this day, It seems that he in no way acted alone as it's impossible to think he could have been in these 2 locations in the given time period delivering shots to Kennedy.
Now these are just a couple of points for further investigation that I thought I'd share here (I'll discuss them further soon) but what's also interesting is that while discussing people on the ground it seems the anomaly in the image above isn't the only anomaly that was to occur. In fact, something which we can clearly see from photographic evidence is there is also 2 more suspicious characters on the ground near the presidential motorcade prior to the shooting as the 2 men in question seemed to be signalling in some way as well as one of them looks to be speaking on what is a walkie talkie of some sort. The other of them then holding up an umbrella on what was a bright sunny day and as the motorcade was to pass by, the man with the walkie talkie makes a signal by pumping a fist in the air all the while the man with the umbrella pumps that n the air also. Possibly signalling to a shooter (s). (As shown in the images below)
Walkie talkie in back pocket?
Walkie Talkie in use?
Signalling to a shooter? (shot to Kennedy's back and throat already taken place at this point) (image taken from Zapruder film)
Kennedy's own body guards were seemingly called back also prior to the shooting also, something which shouldn't have happened at all. Ever!
Also, and make of it what you will but Not one radio or television station actually picked up the assassination of JFK itself, Instead they were conveniently waiting for him and his motorcade further up the designated route at the Dallas Trade Mart as the location Kennedy was in at the exact time of the assassination wasn't deemed "important enough" for any live coverage. The members of the media who did indeed follow the motorcade (for obvious reasons) were actually at the rear as well. Out of view.
Now, maybe this was all a conspiracy or maybe something else much more explainable but the matter of the fact is, we shouldn't have a film of the events which in itself is quite convenient for those committing the act but maybe I' looking into it too much still. But, we luckily do have a film of the events and reasoning for that was down to members of the public attempting to capture even a glimpse of the president as he drove through the Dealey Plaza area. One citizen who did indeed capture the events was called Abraham Zapruder. A name which will forever be remembered in the case of the assassination as he was one of the few people to actually capture the events, and not just that, but possibly one of the only people to capture the entire series of events from Kennedy coming into elm street (into view), to the shooting itself and finally where the presidential limousine was to speed off in search of a hospital (completely leaving the scene of the crime) and all from a clear view location where we can see the fatal shot (although the shot to Kennedy's back and throat (in what was the same shot) are out of view).
The film by Zapruder was recorded on a Bell & Howell Zoomatic Director Series silent 8 mm film (see image of the camera below) and captured the entire series of events (as was mentioned) with the before shot scene, the present scene (in other words, the fatal shot) and of course the after shot which is of utmost importance when attempting to understand what truly happened here. Without it, the assassination simply wouldn't be seen as what it is today and we may not even be discussing it now.
Here is the camera that was used:
Bell & Howell 414PD
Here are the specifics of the camera used:
Camera Maker: Bell & Howell.(Source)
Model: 414PD Director Series
Film Type: Double 8mm - 25ft or 50ft film roll
Film Speeds: ASA 10 to ASA 40
Running Speed: Single frame, 16fps and 48fps (slow motion.)
Lens: Bell & Howell Varamat f1.8 / 9-27mm - Power Zoom
Mechanism: Spring Motor
Lightmeter: Built-in Dual Electric-Eye.
Non-reflex viewfinder (parallax corrected and coupled with zoom.)
The camera zooms from telephoto to wide angle. It focuses from 6.0 feet to infinity. The camera has built in haze filters.
The camera can adjust from f/1.8 to f/22 to accommodate all types of film.
The film, obviously after capturing the series of events later became commonly known as the "Zapruder film" and this short 26 second video later became quite possibly one of the most famous if not important homemade video's in all of American history, certainly one that helped in the investigation to understand the events that occurred here. The film also apparently became so famous that it's said to have become worth around sixteen million dollars in total. It's also claimed that an arbitration panel ordered the US government to pay $615,384 per second of film to Zapruder's heirs for giving the film to the National Archives as they later ended up selling it to Life Magazine and eventually the American Government although to this day I believe the Zapruder family still retains all showing rights to the film.
The Film lives up to its responsibility though, and it's apparent fee ( ) as according to David R. Wrone, It most certainly does prove that the official report into the events occupied by the Warren Commission was completely false. Yet more evidence for it might I add...
Without fanfare, he concludes that more than three gunshots were fired from more than one direction and that most likely none were fired by alleged assassin Lee Harvey Oswald. If true, then JFK’s death was the result of a conspiracy, for the Commission’s non conspiracy conclusion requires a maximum of three shots and one gunman.(Source)
Wrone, however, does not speculate as to who actually shot JFK or why—or even if Oswald was involved. In fact, he is just as critical of the legion of conspiracy theorists as he is of the Warren Commission (which, he reveals, crushed dissent within its own ranks).
The footage was first shown publicly at the trial of Clay Shaw in 1969, and on television in 1975.
Here is the entire Zapruder film.....
*WARNING: This is very graphic and It's advised that you DO NOT watch if you're squeamish*
Google Video Link
Here is the entire film Frame by Frame.
Frame by Frame list of the Zapruder film - Frame 1 - Frame 486
- But was the Zapruder film tampered with?
..According to Adrian Zapruder though, the film is very much an authentic piece of evidence, and something we can seriously trust and to be perfectly honest, that's not anything I'm going to disagree with at all. Facts are yes, the video he shot on that day is authentic..BUT is the video that we can see today the same film that he captured? That IMO is the real question here.
Well, firstly after capturing the events that occurred, I'm talking about the assassination of the president here, Zapruder reportedly went back to his work place, completely distraught and traumatised by what he had just seen in person, he then turned on the news to see the events unfolding and at one point after hearing word that the president was injured but not known how badly Zapruder was said to have said "I know he's dead," "...I saw his head explode like a firecracker. It was the worst thing I've ever seen. There's no way he could still be alive." Later that day a reporter of the name Harry McCormack went to Zapruder’s office, presumably after hearing he captured the shooting (as I believe this occurred to many of those with cameras) and eventually it was agreed that they would make copies of the film strictly for secret service use.
McCormick had offered $1,000 as well I believe but nothing was accepted right away. They was eventually escorted to a place where they could make copies of the film by a police officer before in total 3 copies were to be made. The film was previewed at the lab just after being developed. Sorrels the man with McCormich later came and picked up 2 of the copies. The film was then as far as I'm aware sold to LIFE Magazine and the original was also sold but I'm unsure of that exactly.
The next day, and the day after the assassination, Zapruder at the hands of a projector and a small room of secret service personnel as well as 1 reporter of the name Richard Stolley, whom was LIFE's Los Angeles Bureau Chief the film was to be shown for the first time, apparently the film had to be shown again and again as more people were turning up. At times Zapruder having to stop himself watching as the film was still incredibly shocking and traumatising for him. The original film was then sent to LIFE's Chicago plant, the copy to LIFE's New York offices. A duplicate was then to be made of the original and then sent to New York and shortly afterwards, rumour had it that LIFE had bought only the print rights to the film.
The next month in December the film was then requested by J. Edgar Hoover and then shortly after this the Warren Commission, aided by members of the FBI also, were to officially investigate the film leaving quite a big time limit to edit certain areas of the film. Something which was not impossible at the time by any means although it’s a big claim admittedly.
By this time as far as I know, Zapruder himself had only seen the entire film properly a couple of times as it was (as I mentioned) still traumatising for him to watch so it's not entirely out of the question to suggest that years later he could have been fooled by a good copy.
*WARNING: This is very graphic and It's advised that you DO NOT watch if you're squeamish*
This link will explain a lot better than I can how it's possible that the film was edited to edit out a potential 2 shots on the president at the time of the fatal head shot to his right temple at Dealey Plaza. Also explained is why the Zapruder film could be faked. It is certainly worth a look IMHO but keep the warning tag in mind as it's quite graphic imagery.
From the link above:
This seems to tell us that the shooter was in front of the car on the right side, on the “grassy knoll” (small hill) next to Elm Street. But the U.S. Government insisted that JFK was shot by just one man hiding in a building far behind the limousine.
Things get more complicated when we look at the film frame-by-frame. As the bullet hits, JFK’s head first moves forwards:
Something which is impossible as he is shown to have been hit in front and to the right temple producing a violent movement of the head in the opposite direction. The fact he moves forward first is a possible indication he was possibly shot from behind at around the same time as it's a relatively sharp movement forward and not something that is seemingly caused by a car slowing down.
This makes things confusing. There seemed to be three possible explanations:Here's the link again with the rest of what's wrote above.
1.) He was hit by two bullets at almost the same time (one from behind and then one from the front).
2.) He was hit from behind, and a jet of brain matter exploding from the front caused his head to recoil backwards.
3.) He was hit from behind and some sort of muscle reaction caused his head to fly backwards.
People tried to figure this out for three decades. Instead of clearing up the mystery, Zapruder’s film just made things more confusing.
In the 1990s, researchers started to realize that there was a fourth possible explanation. Zapruder’s film might also be a part of the lies and cover-up that agencies of the U.S. Government had weaved around the JFK assassination!
Scientists examined the Zapruder film. They found that, while most of it looks completely genuine, some of the images are impossible. They violate the laws of physics. They could not have come from Zapruder’s home movie camera.
Zapruder’s film is a very good forgery. It is almost perfect. Some mistakes took almost 40 years to find.
The scientists also proved that Zapruder’s film was not just changed a little bit. The whole film is a fake!
A movie film is just a strip of little photos (“frames”). The fake film was made by cutting and pasting real photos and film frames together to make new frames.
Because the Zapruder film is only 27 seconds long, less than 500 photos needed to be made. The forgers had almost a year to create them, before they were published. This was not difficult to do in 1963 and 1964. People had been creating high quality fake photos since the 1850s!
Oh, and I haven't added the images from the link (above) as they are not for the fainthearted IMHO and I'd prefer people to choose for themselves if they'd like to see them as again, they can be quite graphic.
But yes, the anomaly mentioned above is intriguing and purely bizarre to say the least as upon being shot, Kennedy's head does indeed move forward (which is clearly shown in the link above) and then sharply backwards and to the left! An indication of a shot from behind and another shot from a different location ahead of him but in no way is it an indication of a single shot from behind by any stretch of the imagination IMO. Or possibly (as I have mentioned) it was the stopping or slowing down of the car from Greer (the driver) which created the sudden jolt forward and then the subsequent shot to the head causing it to violently move backwards and to the left like it did but like I said it doesn't seem to be backed up by much evidence as Kennedy himself moved forward at this point in what was quite a sharp movement forward.
(Personally, if it's not clear already, I don’t believe this theory but it is most definitely plausible as he did in fact seem to slow down at times. Something which was weird as he should have sped off after the first shot, a shot which he saw as he turned around and saw it himself.)
If Kennedy was shot twice in the head, it is likely it occurred when his limo pulled to the left and stopped for about two seconds. Some think it only slowed down. Either move was in contravention of official policy. The accepted version of the film shows the stop so sudden that the occupants were jolted forward. Those who study the Zapruder film closely believe this is what happened and point to the fact that driver William Greer’s two head turned faster than is humanly possible. Studies, using a tennis pro, indicate that Greer’s head turned twice as fast as humanly possible. That is to say a few frames must have been removed. There has also been a study of Frame 323, which must have been sloppily recreated because it includes a lamppost and sign that actually belong on another frame.(Source)
Also, have a look at this image below as well which compares the Zapruder film from 1963 to the modern day seemingly showing that certain parts of the film seem to have been edited in some way or another. The images GIF images below show the anomaly of the lamppost and sign that was supposed to be in another frame allegedly. Oh and please remember, nothing has changed from then till now apart from what is mentioned in the external material above....
Notice that even the angle of the lamppost is completely wrong here.
*Try and concentrate on the background images such as the tree in the background or the wall to see that these images are indeed took from the exact same spot and please ignore the people and the cars etc....*
Image #1 - Too big to see effectively so please follow this link instead.
Image #2 - Too big to see effectively so please follow this link instead.
Further proof of tampering perhaps?
In regards to the sign though, I have to ask was it moved slightly to stop us from seeing the first shot that hit Kennedy in the back which was obstructed by the sign as we can clearly see from frame 222? and we can also see that Jackie is reacting to Kennedy at this point and Connally seems to be reacting to something also as his shoulder is starting to drop and he starts to move to the right and of course in frame 225 when we can firstly see Kennedy emerging from behind the sign he is also reacting as he starts to reach to his chest and has obviously stopped waving so he has undeniably been struck at this point which is conveniently behind the sign.
Was the Zapruder film tampered with?
Investigation of the shots fired and where they came from
- The magic bullet theory
The Magic bullet theory or the "single bullet theory" as it's sometimes known as was a conclusion straight from the (heavily disputed) Warren Commission. It claims that the injuries sustained by Kennedy (the shot to his back and throat) and also Connelly were from the exact same bullet. Wounds that occurred to both of the men through this one bullet are as follows:
According to the single-bullet theory, a three-centimeter-long copper-jacketed lead-core 6.5-millimeter rifle bullet fired from the sixth floor of the Texas School Book Depository passed through President Kennedy’s neck and Governor Connally’s chest and wrist and embedded itself in the Governor’s thigh. If so, this bullet traversed 15 layers of clothing, 7 layers of skin, and approximately 15 inches of tissue, struck a necktie knot, removed 4 inches of rib, and shattered a radius bone.(Source)
What's even more amazing about the bullet is the well known and often referred to trajectory of it, shown in the above image. (which is why it's commonly known as the "magic bullet."
But, I can't help wondering if this is in fact true or whether it's just an attempt at making the warren commission’s claims look even sillier than most believe them to be (which many are IMO) so I thought I would do some research and try and find it out myself and to be perfectly honest, I'm glad I did because my opinion on this theory has changed quite a lot. Whether it's true or not I don't know but I'm starting to believe in the single bullet theory myself and I also found this enlightening video explaining how the single bullet theory isn't as farfetched as one would think. Or as I certainly thought it was anyway, Or as some would want you to believe even:
Lining up the "magic" bullet
Main points of discussion in the above video:
- Quick explanation of the well known misunderstanding of the magic bullet theory as given by sceptics. (e.g. Bullet must have curved)
- Shows where most believe Connelly was sitting
- Shows his correct positioning (around 6 inches inboard)
- It also shows that instead of facing forwards like most believe, he was slightly to the right. (also shown in the Zapruder film
- Explains that most believe they (Kennedy and Connelly) were at the same height but this is also wrong. Connally was lower down as shown in the video.
In fact it's not only shown in the video above but it's also shown in this image below of the presidential limousine (I believe) not long after it was cleaned after the assassination. What's clearly shown is the heights of the back seat compared to the front seat.
- Shows the true trajectory of the bullet with the correct positions of the two men showing that the bullet could have struck them both where the warren commission’s claims.
Now this is where the shooting would have come from.
Here is the shooters supposed view from the Texas School Book depository building in computer recreation. Look at the angle of both Kennedy and Connally.
From that angle, it doesn't seem as farfetched to assume the bullet could very well have hit Kennedy where the warren commission claims as well as hit Connally where it also claims (the right shoulder).
Here is the entire video where the image above is took from showing what the 3 shots may have looked like from Oswald’s view in computer recreation.
Kennedy assassination shooting sequence
Summary Isn't needed
Another such theory that tried to debunk the Single bullet theory is the very clearly shown bullet mark on the actual jacket that Kennedy himself was wearing during the assassination. If we are to believe it's the true bullet mark then it seemingly debunks the single bullet theory straight away as it appears to be too low down to have hit Kennedy where the Warren commission has claimed thus the theory is debunked. Oh and it's very clearly shown to be too low down to have exited his throat, specifically just below his Adams apple again where it's claimed it exited.
Now, to disprove this theory, here is the top he wore:
Now, the very fact that the bullet hole looks to be too low down is enough for some to believe the single bullet theory is impossible as the bullet clearly couldn't have exited his throat from this angle. But there is a theory which seems to explain away how the bullet mark could have been so low and the warren commission’s report still correct.
The theory is Kennedy's jacket was simply bunched up. Now, It's not a farfetched idea even though at first it does sound like one, or at least a typical excuse anyway or to me it does but it was something Kennedy is quite known for and it is quite plausible as show in these images below of the president.
Here are 2 images of him coming into elm street prior to being shot.
Concentrate on his jacket, specifically near his neck.
This photograph, allegedly taken at around the Zapruder Frame 161 and possibly around 3 and a half seconds before JFK emerges from behind the Stemmons freeway sign already in distress at being shot.
Here it is zoomed in. Notice how high it is now?
A shot at this time would have most definitely caused a bullet hole to appear much lower than it originally was as his shirt was bunched up causing the illusion the bullet hole was further down.
Now, that we're still on the magic bullet theory, another thing that interests me a lot is the interesting circumstances in which they found the actual bullet itself, and of course the minimal amount of damage to it etc. which is IMHO where the truth telling starts to end as before it's certainly plausible and can be proven but now, allegedly, the very bullet causing all of this damage (the damage to Kennedy and Connelly) was almost completely unharmed itself. Its copper jacket was completely intact, The bullet's nose appeared normal and the tail was compressed laterally on one side. That's all.
To me it sounds very farfetched indeed, especially since the bullet was then found, quite conveniently, on the actual gurney of Connally in the corridor at the Parkland Memorial Hospital, in Dallas where both men were took to care for their injuries. Some say it was purposefully placed here, a claim which seems to be plausible IMHO. Well, at the very least It was rather convenient that the bullet fired supposedly by Oswald was to simply be found lying on a stretcher of one of the gunshot victims really after all isn't it? The person who found the bullet though was Mr. Darrell C. Tomlinson after moving some stretchers it was claims that the bullet simply just rolled out in front of him. He was then to call Mr. O.P. Wright to investigate also.
Wright was to later cause headaches for the FBI as they claimed that Wright in 1964 told them that the Bullet they was to show him later on after the finding was the bullet that he saw on that day in November, but Wright was to flat out deny this. He claims that he in fact told them it DID NOT look anything like the bullet that rolled out. So why would they lie about this I wonder?
Well following this link may explain how many more were to lie, many of those lies in official reports in fact and also from high ranking officials and from those working at the hospital who saw the bullet and how it was changed over time..
In an interview in 1966. Before any photos were shown or he was asked for any description of #399 (what the bullet was officially known as), Wright said: “That bullet had a pointed tip.”
“Pointed tip?” Thompson asked.
“Yeah, I’ll show you. It was like this one here,” he said, reaching into his desk and pulling out the .30 calibre bullet pictured in Six Seconds.”
As Thompson described it in 1967, “I then showed him photographs of CE’s 399, 572 (the two ballistics comparison rounds from Oswald’s rifle), and 606 (revolver bullets), and he rejected all of these as resembling the bullet Tomlinson found on the stretcher. Half an hour later in the presence of two witnesses, he once again rejected the picture of 399 as resembling the bullet found on the stretcher.”
But according to the warren commission, a pointed tip styled bullet wasn't used so how could this have been what he saw? Unless it was changed.
Interesting to say the least but what does Connelly himself, one of the me shot believe about the magic bullet theory?
Autopsy notes show that the alleged exit would in the throat was higher than the supposed entry would in the back. How could that be? This magic bullet made seven wounds in two men and did not disintegrate. Another bullet, allegedly fired from the same gun, disintegrated in Kennedy’s head. John Connally maintained he was not hit by the same bullet that hit Kennedy. Nellie Connally saw Kennedy hit and then heard another shot that, she believed, hit her husband.(Source)
- How does "James Tague" fit into all of this?
James Tague, was one of the unlikely and lesser known "victims" of the events that were to occur at Dealey Plaza on this day as it's claimed he was also struck by a bullet, in his case it was a wound to the cheek. (The right cheek as far as I'm aware but there seems to be conflicting reports) Originally, he was simply driving through the area before meeting heavy traffic, presumably on account of the presidents presence, therefore he decided to head on out of his car and stand at Dealey Plaza around 520 feet from the Texas school book depository building (where the claimed shooter was) to catch a glimpse of him.
This is where Tague was standing exactly (clearly shown near/under the triple underpass)
Here is the curb in which he was standing at showing the bullet damage (as verified by authorities and then "experts" I believe)
Authorities on site concluded that the marks to the curbs and to Tagues face were in fact from a bullet fragment.
But why is he important still? Why does it matter that Tague was here in the first place? Why does it matter that he was struck? Well the fact that Tague was injured here seems to be undeniable evidence that there was a 4th shot. A seemingly missed shot and Yes, a missed shot is nothing new really as according to the Warren Commission, the missed shot was the first shot fired by Oswald. Now, if that was the shot that injured Tague and caused the injuries to him, then it was an incredibly wild miss indeed as Kennedy was quite a distance away, (as I have mentioned) it was over 500 feet from where the shot would have come from. But facts are Tague apparently heard this shot as well which means it couldn't have been this one which caused his injuries. It was around Frame 161 I believe, which is when Kennedy stops waving and starts to look around when the shot was fired at which point Tague also heard the shot but (as far as I'm aware) had no reaction to any injuries meaning this wasn't the shot that struck him and the curb he was standing at.
Although I can't help but wonder at this point whether the shot that did miss its target could have ricocheted so much so that when it missed (whether it hit the streetlight or the tree which was possibly in its way causing the miss), that it ricocheted so much so that it head in Tague's direction which was further up ahead of Kennedy at this point I believe. In fact it could have been directly in front of him albeit quite a distance away, although there's no way to prove this. It's merely an observation and the fact he heard the shot and had no reaction to it on a physical level seems to prove this wrong also.
Like many other witnesses, Tague remembered hearing this first shot and likened it to a firecracker. Tague later testified that the first shot he recalled hearing occurred after the Presidential limousine had already completed the 120-degree slow turn from Houston Street onto Elm Street and then straightened out. The motorcade then proceeded towards him.(Source)
But if it couldn't have been the first shot, which is very likely, then it means there must have been another shot. Possibly one at around the same time as another otherwise there would be reports of another shot (It's possible there was another shot fired at the same time as the fatal shot and 2 shots being fired at the same time could produce to some the sound of a single shot). In reality though all of this is just mere speculation and we may never know what really happened here so I won’t dwell on Tague too much. Instead I'll move on and concentrate on different aspects of the events which had occurred which are worthy of more discussion here.
Here is an interesting link about this section of the Assassination which may be worth a read though.
Please continue reading into the next post.