It looks like you're using an Ad Blocker.
Please white-list or disable AboveTopSecret.com in your ad-blocking tool.
Some features of ATS will be disabled while you continue to use an ad-blocker.
There have been reports of black rain falling across South Australia's west coast at the weekend.
Residents from Smoky Bay to Laura Bay have confirmed the black rain, which deposited ash on vehicles and boats.
The Bureau of Meteorology's weather observer in Ceduna, Mark Bedson, says the black rain came down during thunderstorms across Eyre Peninsula early Saturday.
Trichothecene mycotoxins were alleged to be used in Southeast Asia, the incidents known popularly as "Yellow Rain." Initial suspicions were raised in the summer of 1975, when there were multiple reports among Hmong and Cambodian refugees of light aircraft dumping a yellow-green powder, causing vomiting and involuntary defecation. The powder was followed by the dropping of a munition that detonated in the air to produce a dense red haze that drifted down into the green-yellow dust, causing oral hemorrhaging followed by asphyxiation. Mortality rates were described as high. A UN commission was formed, but investigators were denied access to the areas where attacks reportedly took place. There are similar reports dating from the late 1960s in Yemen as well as from Ethiopia and Afghanistan in 1979-81. It has been alleged that there were more than 6,300 deaths in Laos, 1,000 in Cambodia, and 3,000 in Afghanistan. All alleged attacks occurred in remote areas, which made confirmation of attacks and recovery of the alleged agent extremely difficult.
Much controversy has centered about inconsistencies in eyewitness and victim accounts, as well as on the quality of the forensic evidence. The original public accusation was supported primarily by anecdotal accounts, intelligence reports, and the chemical analysis of a single sample without proper controls. The initial accusation also relied in part on an argument that mycotoxins did not occur in Southeast Asia because there were no reported occurrences in the literature. Soon after the original accusation was made, other investigators suggested that the "yellow clouds" were, in fact, bee feces produced by swarms of migrating insects, a phenomenon that had not been considered; the yellow rain was found to be composed mostly of pollen. It was also noted that Fusarium species are found in Southeast Asia, refuting some of the support for the original accusations. Subsequent chemical analyses of additional samples including clinical samples which established that victims were exposed to trichothecene mycotoxins; another sample contained mycotoxins and traces of a polyethylene glycol derivative. These reports provide additional support to the case for yellow rain as an example of toxin warfare. However, the possibility remains that the yellow rain and the mycotoxin exposure were natural phenomena.
The Russian military discovered the potential use of trichothecene mycotoxins as biological toxins shortly after World War II, when civilians ate bread baked from flour contaminated with species of fusarium mold. Some victims developed a protracted lethal illness characterized by initial symptoms of abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, and exhaustion followed within days by fever, chills, muscular pain, and an imbalance of the red and white blood cells accompanied by pus-forming or other disease-causing organisms or their toxins in the blood or tissues.According to UNSCOM, Iraq researched trichothecene mycotoxins, including T-2.
The trichothecene mycotoxins are nonvolatile compounds produced by molds. These substances are relatively insoluble in water but highly soluble in ethanol, methanol, and propylene glycol. The trichothecenes are very stable and resist heat- and ultraviolet light-induced inactivation. Heating to 500o F for 30 minutes will inactivate the toxins, while exposure to sodium hypochlorite destroys toxic activity.
This discussion focuses on the T-2 mycotoxin, a highly toxic agent that causes several illnesses in humans and animals. From the 1970s and 1980s trichothecene mycotoxins surfaced in the press as a biological warfare agent in incidents labeled "yellow rain" attacks in Southeast Asia.
After exposure to the mycotoxins, early symptoms begin within about 5 - 60 minutes. They attack multiple systems at once providing full-body misery.
Skin symptoms include burning, tender and reddened skin, swelling, and blistering progressing to tissue death dermal and sloughing of large skin areas in lethal cases.
Respiratory exposure results in nasal itching, pain, sneezing, bloody and runny nose, difficulty breathing, wheezing, cough, and blood-tinged saliva and sputum.
Gastrointestinal symptoms include loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, abdominal cramping, and watery and/or bloody diarrhea.
Following entry into the eyes, pain, tearing, redness, and blurred vision occurs.
Systemic toxicity may occur bringing weakness, prostration, dizziness, lack of muscular coordination, irregular heartbeat, hyperthermia or hypothermia, diffuse bleeding, and hypotension. Death may occur within minutes to days depending on the dose and route of exposure.
To really appreciate these organisms you must view them under high magnification, preferably 400 power. Through a microscope a drop of melted snow contains literally thousands of brilliant red cells of Chlamydomonas nivalis that resemble globular hard candies. Critical focusing reveals a thickened wall with a warty or minutely bumpy ornamentation. Sometimes the cells are mixed with the distinctive winged pollen grains of timberline pines, such as whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis). In the Sierra Nevada I can usually find a few cells of another kind of snow algae in drops of pink snow. The other species, Chloromonas, has oval cells with a greenish center and a distinctive orange-yellow lipid droplet at each end.