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In physics and chemistry, plasma is a partially ionized gas, in which a certain proportion of electrons are free rather than being bound to an atom or molecule. The ability of the positive and negative charges to move somewhat independently makes the plasma electrically conductive so that it responds strongly to electromagnetic fields. Plasma therefore has properties quite unlike those of solids, liquids or gases and is considered to be a distinct state of matter.
Plasma in space consists entirely of ions and electrons, and is thus very energetic or 'hot'. Only when cooled does it form the matter to which we are familiar here on Earth: solids, liquids, and gases.
Because plasma remains electrically charged in space, it is influenced more by electromagnetic forces than gravity. In fact space, once considered mostly empty, has been found to be alive with plasma. Vast flows of charged particles have been discovered spanning hundreds-of-thousands of light years across interstellar space.
Some behaviours and properties of Plasma
Plasma is an excellent conductor of electricity. Because of its free-flowing electrons its conductive properties far surpass those of copper and gold.
Due to its interaction with electromagnetism, plasmas display a complexity in structure far exceeding that of matter in gaseous, liquid, or solid states. It has a tendency to form into cellular and filamentary structures.
These structures derive from the fact that a charged particle flow (or current) produces a ring of magnetic fields around itself, 'pinching' plasma into multi-filamentary strands, as can be seen on both cosmic and more localised scales. Pictured right is a novelty plasma-lamp typical of those available on the high street.
Mainstream science, for the most part, looks on the universe as electrically neutral and purely mechanical; a place where the weak force of gravity holds fort. Plasma Cosmology, by contrast, acknowledges the electrodynamic nature of the universe. Gravity and inertia are NOT the only forces at work.
The history of science, of course, is fraught with controversy, and it is important to bear in mind that the situation today is little different.
The complex patterns of electric currents and magnetic fields surrounding the Earth are how the Earth's electric charge adjusts to the Sun's electric field. These electrical phenomena were a complete surprise, discovered by satellites launched by astronomers who expected to find the Earth isolated from the rest of the universe by featureless vacuum. Instead, they found the near-Earth environs alive with energetic activity.
Other electrical sparks that the Earth produces go unnoticed because we have lived with them so long that we think we know what causes them. Many meteorological phenomena are electrically driven. We've always thought of lightning as electrical, and now we're beginning to realize that we can think of tornadoes and hurricanes as electrical phenomena, too. But less spectacular weather conditions like dust devils and waterspouts are also electrically driven, as are larger weather patterns, the jet streams and El Niño.
Many natural systems form capacitors as well. For example, the Earth's surface and its ionosphere are two conducting layers separated by air. The surface-ionosphere capacitor is of particular interest in the study of sprites. Small "leaks" in the form of lightning can trigger much larger "leaks" (sprites, etc.) at high altitudes above them.
In the electric universe, this effect can be traced via auroral circuits, through the circuitry of the solar system, and far into interstellar space. From this viewpoint sprites and lightning are merely leakage currents trickling off the galactic power line. But clearly, the degree to which electric potential from the galaxy powers thunderstorms on Earth has yet to be investigated.
Sprites are large scale electrical discharges that occur high above thunderstorm clouds, or cumulonimbus, giving rise to a quite varied range of visual shapes.
They are triggered by the discharges of positive lightning between an underlying thundercloud and the ground. They are colored reddish-orange in the upper regions, with bluish hanging tendrils below, and can be preceded by a reddish halo. They often occur in clusters, lying 80 kilometers (50 mi) to 150 kilometers (93 mi) above the Earth's surface and up to 50 kilometers (31 mi) horizontally from the thunderstorm which produced the sprites.
[snip]...the excitation of nitrogen molecules due to electron collisions (the electrons possibly having been energized by the electromagnetic pulse caused by a discharge from the Ionosphere).
Blue jets differ from sprites in that they project from the top of the cumulonimbus above a thunderstorm, typically in a narrow cone, to the lowest levels of the ionosphere 25 miles (40 km) to 30 miles (48 km) above the earth. They are also brighter than sprites and, as implied by their name, are blue in colour.
And under the clouds the investigators documented extraordinary strikes of “positive” lightning. These bolts were six times as powerful as ordinary “negative” lightning, and they lasted ten times as long. Where ordinary lightning could punch a tiny hole in a wing, positive lightning could burn through struts and wires and rip pieces apart. These bolts carry forces many times greater than what airplanes are designed to withstand. In one crash, rivets had been melted. In another, a pipe had been crushed and twisted. Crash specialists suspected these planes had been brought down by strikes of positive lightning.
Investigators finally were able to correlate their observations. They realized that every time there was a sprite above the clouds there was a bolt of positive lightning below the clouds. The sprite and the positive bolt were parts of a single discharge that stretched from space to the Earth’s surface.
There are some 16 million lightning storms in the world every year.
Like most sciences, meteorology still considers the Earth to be an isolated body in space. It is not. It is a charged body moving through an active plasma environment, surrounded by a web of electric currents commonly called the magnetosphere. Earth's surface and atmosphere are electrically connected through this magnetosphere to electrical conditions in space and on the Sun. Astronomers Sallie Baliunas and Willy Soon have shown that for as long as temperature records have been kept, the global temperatures of the Earth have correlated to the sunspot cycle. And the sunspot cycle also affects radio transmission and power grids.
The Electric Universe identifies more effects: Currents to the surface affect the jet streams, moving them closer to the equator when solar activity causes geomagnetic storms. These currents power thunderstorms, waterspouts and hurricanes. The image above is hurricane Frances in 2004. Its form is that of a plasma spiral, mimicking on a small scale the shape of a spiral galaxy and on a large scale the shape of interacting Birkeland currents in the laboratory.
Dec. 11, 2007: NASA's fleet of THEMIS spacecraft, launched less than 8 months ago, has made three important discoveries about spectacular eruptions of Northern Lights called "substorms" and the source of their power. The discoveries include giant magnetic ropes that connect Earth's upper atmosphere to the Sun and explosions in the outskirts of Earth's magnetic field.
Originally posted by geo1066
Hey 'Electro', I was just going thru the other threads here on ATS and came across this one that happened just this past week. With the research that you have done, can you corelate this phenonema with any sunspot or solar flare that happened at the same time?
Gravity Wave hits Alabama
Thanks to new calculations by a Dartmouth geochemist, scientists are now looking at the earth's climate history in a new light.
Mukul Sharma, Assistant Professor of Earth Sciences at Dartmouth, examined existing sets of geophysical data and noticed something remarkable: the sun's magnetic activity is varying in 100,000-year cycles, a much longer time span than previously thought, and this solar activity, in turn, may likely cause the 100,000-year climate cycles on earth. This research helps scientists understand past climate trends and prepare for future ones.
Published in the June 10 issue of Earth and Planetary Science Letters (Elsevier, volume 199, issues 3-4), Sharma's study combined data on the varying production rates of beryllium 10, an isotope found on earth produced when high-energy galactic cosmic rays bombard our atmosphere, and data on the past variations in the earth's magnetic field intensity. With this information, Sharma calculated variations in solar magnetic activity going back 200,000 years, and he noticed a pattern.
Over the last 1 million years, the earth's climate record has revealed a 100,000-year cycle oscillating between relatively cold and warm conditions, and Sharma's data on the sun's magnetic activity corresponded to the earth's ice age history.
Sharma's calculations suggest that when the sun is magnetically more active, the earth experiences a warmer climate, and vice versa, when the sun is magnetically less active, there is a glacial period. Right now, the earth is in an interglacial period (in between ice ages) that began about 11,000 years ago, and as expected, this is also a time when the estimated solar activity appears to be high.
A dust devil is a strong, well-formed, and relatively long-lived whirlwind, ranging from small (half a meter wide and a few meters tall) to large (over 10 meters wide and over 1000 meters tall). The primary vertical motion is upward. Dust devils are usually harmless, but rare ones can grow large enough to threaten both people and property.
They are comparable to tornadoes in that both are a weather phenomenon of a vertically oriented rotating column of air. Most tornadoes are associated with a larger parent circulation, the mesocyclone on the back of a supercell thunderstorm. Dust devils form as a swirling updraft under sunny conditions during fair weather, rarely coming close to the intensity of a tornado.
Pockets of rising warm air randomly “interfering” with each other can hardly be a compelling explanation for electrified dust devils’ power of rotation. Those offering the explanation are forgetting something—the measured electric field of the Earth. At sea level in dry air the field is about 100 volts per meter. The presence of this electric field means there is no need to generate charge separation in a dust devil. It already exists between the Earth and the ionosphere! When warm dry air rises from the surface the vertical movement of charged dust particles forms a weakly ionized plasma. It is a characteristic of plasma to shield electric fields within it by forming a thin “double layer” or sheath, where most of the electric field strength is concentrated. This is what researchers have found at the base of dust devils, where the field has been measured to rise as high as 4,000 volts per meter. An electric field of that strength near the earth is capable of lifting small charged dust particles and generating a vertical current. Rotation is electromagnetically induced between parallel vertical current streams to form a vortex – as we have noted in numerous prior references to rotating Birkeland Currents.
A waterspout is an intense columnar vortex (usually appearing as a funnel-shaped cloud) that occurs over a body of water and is connected to a cumuliform cloud. In the common form, it is a nonsupercell tornado over water, and brings the water upward. It is weaker than most of its land counterparts.
Here, the first visible effects are seen not in the air, but in the water below, and these effects are certainly not a result of colliding air pockets above. First a circular white spot appears, surrounded by an irregular dark area on the water's surface. Next a pattern of light and dark bands spiral outwards. Then a dense, swirling ring of spray, called a cascade, appears around the dark spot and rises toward the clouds.
The breakthrough in understanding waterspouts came from the work of Russian plasma physicist V. A. Rantsev-Kartinov. From his investigation, he concluded that these phenomena are the result of a long-lasting discharge current between the plasma networks of the ocean surface (or lake surface) and the electrical charge of the clouds above. Both the rotation and the narrow, coherent, and undulating funnels of waterspouts are thus explained in terms of plasma discharge behavior.
All of this relates to issues of charge separation. The electrical theorists insist that the greatest mistake by meteorologists is to follow the cosmologists’ notion of an electrically neutral and disconnected universe. By accepting this unsupported assumption meteorologists are required to mechanically separate charge wherever they see electrical activity. A flood of discoveries has disproved the assumption in recent years. Yet it still stands in the way of understanding the origin of lightning on Earth and the associated strange phenomena found stretching up toward space. Our Earth is connected to the circuitry of the Sun. The Sun is similarly connected to the currents flowing along the arm of our Milky Way.
The Sun has tall gyrating storms far larger and faster than tornadoes on the Earth. This unexpected finding is among the latest results from the solar spacecraft SOHO, to be announced at a European Space Agency press briefing on 28 April. British scientists discovered the solar tornadoes in images and data from SOHO's scanning spectrometer CDS. So far they have detected a dozen such events. They occur most frequently near the north and south poles of the Sun and are almost as wide as the Earth.
"I've only looked at 200,000 years. My calculations need to be verified for a million years, for instance.
How long will this Solar minimum last? It's meant to kick start next year.
Originally posted by Phage
reply to post by ElectroMagnetic Multivers
A link between a long period cycle of solar activity and cyclical climate change on Earth is far from firmly established. The evidence for such a long period cycle is tenuous. Sharma has used a very limited sample for his data, a span which covers 2 of these possible cycles. He says:
"I've only looked at 200,000 years. My calculations need to be verified for a million years, for instance.
You seem to be confusing the 11 year solar cycle with the 100,000 year cycle which Sharma postulates. We are experiencing a solar minimum right now. Sharma's data indicates that we are at a period of high activity in his 100,000 year cycle. A period which began 11,000 years ago and so would continue for at least another 40,000 years.
BOULDER--The sun's 11-year solar cycle may be the driving force behind periodic changes in temperatures and pressure heights of the earth's lower stratosphere from pole to pole, according to a new analysis presented Saturday at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Philadelphia.
Harry van Loon, a scientist at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) in Boulder, Colorado, and Karin Labitzke of the Free University of Berlin (FUB) had previously found that a 10- to 12-year oscillation in the stratosphere of the Northern Hemisphere corresponded to four 11-year solar cycles, beginning in 1958. Now, with the help of a vast data reanalysis conducted by NCAR and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction, the two researchers have revealed a mirror image of the solar-stratosphere correlation in the Southern Hemisphere, spanning three solar cycles from 1968 to 1996. NCAR's primary sponsor is the National Science Foundation.
Meteorologists are not sure how tornadoes form but they do know that they are often associated with severe electrical storms. The key to understanding tornadoes is that they are the result of rapidly rotating electric charge. Just as electrons are the current carriers in the copper wires we use for power transmission, so they are in the tornado. The BIG difference is that the electrons are moving at many meters per second in the tornado while they take several hours to move one meter in the copper wire! The result is that enormously powerful electromagnetic forces are in control of the tornado. This effect has been called a "charged sheath vortex."
The shape of the vortex is strongly constrained to be long and thin with a circular cross-section. This true shape of the vortex is usually hidden in tornadoes because of the obscuring dust and clouds. The vortex itself will only be visible if it has sufficient electrical energy to ionize atoms in the atmosphere. That is clearly the case on the Sun. And some people who have survived the experience of being "run over" by a tornado have reported an electrical glow in the inner wall of the tornado.
The simplest is the turbulence vortex, or shear vortex. This is often seen in a dust devil, where an air current flowing over a hot ground surface, rises. As the air rises it starts to rotate, drawing air and dust in at ground level and carrying it upwards through the rotating column to discharge at the top. But note that a dust devil may rapidly become charged and turn into a charged sheath vortex.
The shear vortex has ragged and turbulent edges, and the centre of the vortex is also ragged in appearance.
The charged sheath vortex is a fast spinning tube of electrically charged air and/or dust molecules.
The high velocity of the particles, all with the same net charge, and all rotating in the same direction, creates very large electrodynamic forces (Very similar to an electrical solenoid that produces a powerful electromagnet)
These forces very powerfully keep the particles from flying outwards away from the tube, but also prevent the tube collapsing inwards. If new rotating charged material is constantly being added then this will also push the ends of the tube away from the middle. The result of this balance of very powerful forces is a tube that must stay almost circular, with a clear central tube. Because all the particles are held very firmly in place the sheath can transmit large amounts of energy from one end to the other.
The charged sheath vortex is the mechanism capable of transmitting the energy of a tornado from the clouds to the ground.
It is commonly thought that a tornado is a means for mechanical energy in the storm to be converted somehow to electrical power, which is then transmitted very effectively to ground by the electrical conduit of the charged sheath vortex inside the tornado. The "somehow" arises only because nobody visualizes the electrical dimension of the solar system. Electrical power from space is partially dissipated in the mechanical energy of the encircling winds. Instead of generating the electrical effects, the tornadic winds are driven by the charge sheath vortex and its connection to the electric currents of the solar system.
In this day and age there is no longer any doubt that electrical effects in plasmas play an important role in the phenomena we observe on the Sun. The major properties of the "Electric Sun (ES) model" are as follows:
-Most of the space within our galaxy is occupied by plasma (rarefied ionized gas) containing electrons (negative charges) and ionized atoms (positive charges). Every charged particle in the plasma has an electric potential energy (voltage) just as every pebble on a mountain has a mechanical potential energy with respect to sea level. The Sun is surrounded by a plasma cell that stretches far out - many times the radius of Pluto. These are facts not hypotheses.
-The Sun is at a more positive electrical potential (voltage) than is the space plasma surrounding it - probably in the order of 10 billion volts.
-Positive ions leave the Sun and electrons enter the Sun. Both of these flows add to form a net positive current leaving the Sun. This constitutes a plasma discharge analogous in every way (except size) to those that have been observed in electrical plasma laboratories for decades. Because of the Sun's positive charge (voltage), it acts as the anode in a plasma discharge. As such, it exhibits many of the phenomena observed in earthbound plasma experiments, such as anode tufting. The granules observed on the surface of the photosphere are anode tufts (plasma in the arc mode).
-The Sun may be powered, not from within itself, but from outside, by the electric (Birkeland) currents that flow in our arm of our galaxy as they do in all galaxies. This possibility that the Sun may be exernally powered by its galactic environment is the most speculative idea in the ES hypothesis and is always attacked by critics while they ignore all the other explanatory properties of the ES model. In the Plasma Universe model, these cosmic sized, low-density currents create the galaxies and the stars within those galaxies by the electromagnetic z-pinch effect. It is only a small extrapolation to ask whether these currents remain to power those stars. Galactic currents are of low current density, but, because the sizes of the stars are large, the total current (Amperage) is high. The Sun's radiated power at any instant is due to the energy imparted by that amperage. As the Sun moves around the galactic center it may come into regions of higher or lower current density and so its output may vary both periodically and randomly.
To have any confidence in our understanding of the Sun, and stars in general, we must first be able to explain simply the things we can see. Therefore it is crucially important to understand a sunspot because it is the only place on the Sun that gives a glimpse below the bright photosphere. And what do we see? It is cooler down there by thousands of degrees! That is not expected at all if the Sun is trying to rid itself of heat. The sunspot center should be much hotter and brighter than its surroundings. And what of the penumbral filaments? They and their behavior bear no resemblance to any known form of convection in a hot gas, magnetic fields or no.
There are many crippling agreements that hold up progress in astrophysics. One was succinctly expressed at a recent public meeting by a professor of astrophysics who admitted, "'When we don't understand something we blame it on magnetism."' The Sun has had more features blamed on magnetism than any other celestial object. The cool sunspot center is a classic example. Certainly, strong magnetic fields are measured there but that raises questions of cause and effect. Magnetic fields are only produced by electric currents. Is there any other evidence of electrical activity on the Sun? Yes, practically every feature of the Sun can be understood in terms of electric discharge activity in plasma.
There is a temptation to simply equate the penumbral filaments with gargantuan lightning bolts, but the features do not match all that well.
A typical lightning flash lasts for 0.2 seconds and covers a distance of about 10 km. The penumbral filaments last for at least one hour and are of the order of 1000 km long. If we could scale a lightning bolt 100 times we might have a flash that lasted between 20 and 200 seconds and was 1000 km long. The lifetime is too short. Also, measurements of scars on lightning conductors show that the lightning channel is only about 5 mm wide. Scaling that by 100 times would have solar lightning channels far below the limit of telescopic resolution.
However, there is another familiar form of atmospheric electric discharge that does scale appropriately and could explain the mysterious dark cores of penumbral filaments. It is the tornado! Tornadoes, like the one pictured here, last for minutes and can have a diameter of the order of one kilometre. Scale those figures up 100 times and we match penumbral filaments very well. And if the circulating cylinder of plasma is radiating heat and light, as we see on the Sun, then the solar 'tornado' will appear, side on, to have a dark core.
What causes a sunspot?
In the electrical model, the Sun receives electrical energy from interstellar space in the form of a glow discharge. Plasma experiments show that some energy will be stored in a donut shaped 'plasmoid' above the Sun's equator.
The energy is released sporadically from the plasmoid to the mid-latitudes of the Sun. (Incidentally, plasmoid resonances may give rise to simultaneous flares on opposite sides of the central body, as recently reported on the Sun). The global tornado storm (This refers to all the CSV on the Sun) is pushed aside by more powerful charge sheath vortexes that deliver electrical energy from the plasmoid to much lower levels.
The resulting holes in the tornado level, or photosphere, are what we call sunspots. Rather than being a site where energy flow has been restricted, a sunspot is a site where it is enhanced. That explains why 'they are launch pads for complex expulsions of plasma that race through the solar system.' The giant electrical tornadoes that form sunspots accelerate particles in their powerful electromagnetic fields, generating UV light and x-rays instead of visible light. However, because temperature is a measure of random motion, the field-directed motion of the particles within the sunspot vortex appears 'cool.'
This model can explain why sunspots of the same magnetic polarity are strangely attracted toward each other instead of being repelled. (Try pushing together two similar poles of two magnets). The sunspots are receiving electric current flowing in parallel rotating streams, which results in their being mutually attracted over long distances and repelled at short distances. That, in turn, explains why sunspots often seem to maintain their identity even if they come close enough to merge. There is also other evidence that suggests the presence of electric currents aligned with the magnetic field in a sunspot.
The latest images of sun spots show many bright filaments with dark cores.
According to my vortex theories each filament should be a vortex, with the sheath appearing bright and the core cooler and dark.
These filaments would wrap round each other if it were not for the much greater magnetic fields from below in the sun spot.
For an area to be dark, it must be both at a lower temperature than surrounding regions, and absorbing radient energy from those surrounding regions, otherwise we would simply see the radient energy from the surrounding region.
We can only see into such an energy absorbing region if there is effectively a cavity into this region, and we see the walls of this cavity.
If the walls of this cavity are formed from a series of vortices of this dark cooler material, then we will see the dark lines of these vortices against the dark background of further vortices - not much to see!
But if charge sheath compression takes place within these vortices, and fusion is enhanced within the charge sheath, then we are seeing a tubular glowing sheath set against a darker absorbent mass.
When you look at the sides of a thin walled uniformly glowing tube (where it is the walls of the tube that are glowing, not the core), these appear brighter than the centre. Giving you two parallel bright lines either side of a darker line.
In the turbulent plasma of the sun, charge separation is expected, and the streaming charged plasma will form vortices. Within the charge sheath walls of these vortices the plasma will be compressed and be far hotter than the average temperature of the sun. Fusion processes will take place that would not be expected if fusion only takes place in plasma compressed by gravity.
These fusion vortices will also produce immense electromagnetic fields - and these we observe.
Stars powered by charge sheath fusion vortices require a new set of theories to account for their internal processes, but these may account for the discrepancies between the theory and observed fusion processes and particle emission that we currently endure.
Originally posted by Astyanax
Electric weather theories are magic, not science
Unscientific is, I'm afraid, what electric-universe theories, plasma cosmology and so on are. It doesn't take much thinking about, frankly. If everything were electrically charged, everything would have polarity. We'd be getting electric shocks whenever we touched things. Do we? No.
Originally posted by esecallum
no we don't get shocks you are quite right.
we don't and you are quite ignorant and well set in your ways.
we would never dream of trying to open your closed mind. iit is best to leave you in your own little world.
happy bunny now?