Many places are laced with History and equal to many is the Crimea: for ref/quotes/Info-
The Byzantine Empire
The Romans arrived in Crimea in the 1st century AD and established protectorates and naval bases at Khersoness and in the Bosporan kingdom in the east
of the peninsula. Roman legionaries were also stationed at fortresses built in strategic locations along the coast, such as the Ai-Todor promontory
near Yalta. They lost their Bosporan acquisitions to the Goths in the 4th century, but Khersoness became part of the Byzantine empire and remained
under the control of Constantinople until the 13th century, when it was overrun by part of Chingiz Khan's Golden Horde.Battle of Vorksla River 1399
The Battle of the Vorskla River was a great battle in the medieval history of Eastern Europe. It was fought on August 12, 1399, between the Tatars,
under Edigu and Temur Qutlugh, and the armies of Tokhtamysh and Grand DukeVytautas of Lithuania. The battle ended in a decisive Tatar victory.
The Soviet invasion of Poland was a Soviet military operation that started without a formal declaration of war on 17 September 1939, immediately after
the end of the undeclared war between the Soviet Union and the Empire of Japanat the Battles of Khalkhin Gol (Nomonhan) in the Far East. The
Molotov–Tojo agreement between the USSR and Japan was signed on 15 September 1939, with a ceasefire taking effect on 16 September 1939. On 17
September, sixteen days after Nazi Germany invaded Poland from the west, the Soviet Union did so from the east. The invasion ended on 6 October 1939
with the division and annexing of the whole of the Second Polish Republic by Germany and the Soviet Union.
For centuries Crimea had been the subject of a tug of war between the Byzantine and Khazar empires, Kievan Rus (the fore-runner of modern Russia) and
nomadic tribes such as the Cumans and the Kypchaks. Then in 1223 a new force appeared on the scene. Chingiz Khan's Golden Horde entered Crimea,
sweeping all before it. Originating in current day Mongolia, the Tatars were a collection of nomadic tribes who had united under Chingiz Khan's
banner, and gathered Turkic people to swell their army as they rode and marched across Central Asia and into Eastern Europe. Renowned for his
ruthlessness, the Great Khan's success also lay in his ability to impose discipline and order in place of old tribal rivalries. He introduced laws
forbidding, among other things, blood feuds, theft, the bearing of false witness, sorcery, disobedience of a royal command, and bathing in running
water. The last was a reflection of the Tatars' animist belief system. They worshipped Mongke Koko Tengre, `The Eternal Blue Sky', the almighty
spirit controlling the forces of good and evil, and believed that powerful spirits lived in fire, running water and the wind.
Crimea became part of the huge Tatar empire, stretching from China in the east to beyond Kyiv and Moscow in the west. Because of its sheer size, it
was impossible for Chingiz Khan to govern his empire from Mongolia, and the Crimean Khans enjoyed a considerable amount of autonomy. Their first
Crimean capital was at Qirim (now Stary Krym), and remained there until the 15th century when it moved to Bakhchisarai. It is during the Tatar period
that the peninsula's old name of Tavrida fell gradually into disuse, to be replaced by the name Krym, derived from the name of the Tatar capital.
The breadth of the Tatar empire, and the power of the great Khan meant that for a while merchants and other travellers under his protection could
journey east and west in comparative safety. The Tatars concluded trading agreements with the Genoese and the Venetians and Sudak and Kaffa (Feodosia)
prospered in spite of the taxes levied on them. Marco Polo landed at Sudak on his way to the court of Kublai Khan in 1275.
Like all great empires, the Tatar empire was influenced by the cultures it encountered during its expansion. In 1262 the Egyptian Mamluk Sultan
Baybars, who had been born in Qirim, wrote to one of the Tatar Khans suggesting that the Tatars should convert to Islam. The oldest mosque in Crimea
still stands in Stary Krim, built in1314 by Tatar Khan Uzbek.
‘Looking under Russia’ is perhaps an appropriate metaphor for Ukrainian history.
Since the Pereiaslav / Pereyaslav treaty of 1654, Ukraine has only enjoyed statehood independent from Russia at moments of extreme geopolitical
dislocation, such as in the final days of the First World War, in the wake of the Russian Revolution of 1917. Russian nationalists today appear to
view Ukrainian independence as a similar aberration, the consequence of what President Vladimir Putin labelled the greatest geopolitical disaster of
the twentieth century: the collapse of the Soviet Union – a.k.a. the Russian Empire – in 1991.
Old habits die hard. For many Russians, Ukraine is like a phantom limb still felt to be there long after its amputation. The idea that Ukraine is
really a nation at all strikes some Russians as odd. To the extent that perceptions of history condition politics, understanding the Russian view of
Ukrainian history – and the Ukrainian view of Ukrainian history – is essential.