Volcano erupts more than 50 times: Indonesia danger zone extended
Authorities have extended a danger zone around a rumbling volcano in western Indonesia after it spewed blistering gas farther than expected.
National Mitigation Agency spokesman Sutopo Purwo Nugroho says more than 50 eruptions on Saturday sent lava and searing gas tumbling out of Mount Sinabung in North Sumatra province down the southeastern slopes up to 5 kilometers (3 miles) away.
He said the volcano's danger zone to the southeast was extended from five to seven kilometers (three to four miles) after the new eruption.
It was still spitting clouds of gas and lava as high as 4,000 meters (13,000 feet) on Sunday, but no casualties were reported.
More than 20,000 people have been evacuated from villages around the crater into several temporary shelters.
Sinabung has been erupting since September.
Eruption of subglacial volcanoes may lead to catastrophic floods and therefore early determination of the exact eruption site may be critical to civil protection evacuation plans. Poor visibility due to weather or darkness often inhibit positive identification of exact eruption location for many hours. However, because of the proximity and abundance of water in powerful explosive subglacial volcanic eruptions, they are probably always accompanied by early lightning activity in the volcanic column.
The best available data for the current analysis, Grímsvötn 2011, is shown in Figure 5. After only 30 min from the start of the eruption one could have seen from the lightning data that the median location was 2‒3 km south of the correct location. With a simple wind correction the estimate would indicate 2 km WSW of the 2004 site. After 3 hours the estimate would have indicated that the eruption site was about 1 km W of the 2004 site. Four hours into the eruption (at 22:00 UTC) the wind corrected estimates are all within 1 km of the actual eruption crater, see Figure 6.
Unfortunately my records do not go back far enough yet to see if this has happened before, but coupled with the distinct lack of larger earthquakes one has to wonder............
According to the Icelandic Meteorological Office, the level of the Skaftá river at Sveinstindur and electrical conductivity both rose during 18-19 January indicating a glacial outburst flood (jokulhlaup), originating from Grímsvötn's western Skaftá ice cauldron. The jokulhlaup was unconfirmed without visual observations, however. Flood waters peaked on 20 January and then began to subside on 21 January. The report noted that floods in Skaftá source from two ice cauldrons formed by persistent geothermal activity beneath Vatnajökull. The cauldrons drain an average every two years, producing floods of up to 1,500 cubic meters per second.
Saturday, Feb 01, 2014 Kavachi undersea volcano (Solomon Islands) erupts again The discolored water plume from Kavachi volcano (NASA Earth Observatory image by Jesse Allen and Robert Simmon, using EO-1 ALI data from the NASA EO-1 team. Caption by Robert Simmon) The discolored water plume from Kavachi volcano (NASA Earth Observatory image by Jesse Allen and Robert Simmon, using EO-1 ALI data from the NASA EO-1 team. Caption by Robert Simmon) A submarine eruption is likely occurring at the submerged volcano. A NASA satellite image from 29 Jan shows a plume of discolored sea water swirling and drifting from the location of the volcano. The discoloration is likely from suspended volcanic sediments (the fragmented lava) and gasses. Kavachi is an undersea volcano on the southern edge of the Solomon Islands in the western Pacific Ocean. It erupted dozens of times in the 20th century, often breaking the water surface, only to be eroded back below the water line within a few months. Whether the new eruption will break the surface and create another new island remains to be seen. Directly above the undersea peak, a bright patch is visible that suggests vigorously churning water—but there is no sign that the eruption has broken the surface. (NASA)