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Magnitude ML 3.4
Date time 2012-03-07 15:34:24.0 UTC
Location 44.46 N ; 26.03 E
Depth 11 km
Distances 8 km SE Chitila (pop 12,788 ; local time 17:34:24.2 2012-03-07)
6 km W Bucharest (pop 1,877,155 ; local time 17:34:24.2 2012-03-07)
5 km E Chiajna (pop 8,105 ; local time 17:34:24.2 2012-03-07)
Magnitude mb 4.5
Region IRAN-IRAQ BORDER REGION
Date time 2012-03-07 16:57:13.0 UTC
Location 32.56 N ; 47.07 E
Depth 10 km
Distances 80 km NW Al-'amarah (pop 323,302 ; local time 19:57:13.7 2012-03-07)
240 km NW Al-basrah (pop 2,015,483 ; local time 19:57:13.7 2012-03-07)
23 km SW Dehloran (pop 46,002 ; local time 19:57:13.7 2012-03-07)
The GPS derived anomalous TEC disturbances before earthquakes were discovered in the last years using global and regional TEC maps, ... For strong mid-latitudinal earthquakes the seismo-ionospheric anomalies look like local TEC enhancements ... We consider that the most probable reason of the NmF2 and TEC disturbances observed before the earthquakes is the vertical drift of the F2-region ionospheric plasma under the influence of the zonal electric field of seismic origin. ... The results of the corresponding numerical model calculations have revealed a fine agreement with TEC anomalies observed before strong earthquakes at the middle and low latitudes both in spatial scales and in amplitude characteristics.
The extensive studies of the ionospheric earthquake precursors in the GPS TEC measurements carried
out in the last years have revealed that for strong mid-latitudinal earthquakes the seismo-ionospheric anomalies
very often (usually) look as local TEC increases and they are situated in the immediate vicinity of the earthquake
In case of TEC enhancements in the middle latitudes and deepening of the equatorial anomaly trough this field is directed to the east and induces the electromagnetic drift of the plasma across the geomagnetic field with velocity directed straight upwards over the magnetic equator and upwards and pole wards in the middle latitudes.
Fig. 2 presents the seismogenic equatorial anomaly observed in the measurements of Alouette-2 satellite 1 day prior to the Chile earthquake of 12 April 1963
Alouette 2 was a Canadian research satellite launched at 04:48 UTC on November 29, 1965 by a Thor Agena rocket with Explorer 31 from the Western test range at Vandenberg AFB in California.
Alouette 2 was a small ionospheric observatory instrumented with a sweep-frequency ionospheric sounder, a VLF receiver, an energetic particle experiment, a cosmic noise experiment, and an electrostatic probe.
GPS technique provides measurements of the group and phase delays of the signals L 1 =1575 MHz
and L 2 =1228 MHz with a 30-sec interval. The ionospheric delay can be transformed into the content of electrons along the signal path between a GPS satellite and GPS receiver, and then recalculated into its vertical projection. The vertical total electron content (TEC) is very sensitive to changes of the maximal electron concentration (NmF2) in the F2 layer of the ionosphere.
The GPS project was developed in 1973 to overcome the limitations of previous navigation systems
The vertical total electron content (TEC) is very sensitive to changes of the maximal electron concentration (NmF2) in the F2 layer of the ionosphere.
These effects were probably related with the equatorward displacement of the equatorial anomaly northern crest and reduction of the electron concentration in the crest.
Of course it is an established fact that the spin rate of molecular ions O2+ and NO+, and atomic ions O+ in the F1 region can also affect the TEC and may provide a mechanism for the observed anomalies.
perhaps Puterman has the original magnitude on his data bank?
After remaining silent for more than 40 years, M9 earthquakes have resumed: the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman (M9.2) ( 5), 2010 Maule (M8.8), and 2011 Tohoku-Oki (M9.0) earthquakes.
The theory for discussion is just fine. I was not shooting the messenger by the way just in case you thought I was!
Time elapsed, Magnitude estimate
000 00:01:23, 3.0
000 00:02:05, 3.0
000 00:02:10, 3.1
000 00:02:11, 3.1
000 00:02:19, 3.0
000 00:02:39, 3.4
000 00:02:44, 3.8
000 00:02:47, 4.2
000 00:02:47, 4.0
000 00:02:50, 4.3
000 00:03:30, 4.4
000 00:04:14, 4.5
000 00:04:15, 4.6
000 00:04:20, 4.7
000 00:35:08, 3.0
000 00:42:33, 3.1
this page is for testing purposes only and should not be referred to in any official context.
Public ID 2012p181886
Universal Time March 8 2012 at 7:09:03
NZ Daylight Time Thursday, March 8 2012 at 8:09:03 pm
Latitude, Longitude -40.76, 174.74
Focal Depth 112 km
Location 30 km north-west of Paraparaumu
To: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org Subject: USGS/SLU Regional Moment Tensor Solution 12/03/08 10:57:44.07 Epicenter: 60.996 -150.950 MW 4.1 USGS/SLU REGIONAL MOMENT TENSOR Depth 26 No. of sta: 67 Moment Tensor; Scale 10**15 Nm Mrr= 0.91 Mtt= 0.56 Mpp=-1.46 Mrt= 0.90 Mrp= 0.45 Mtp=-0.04 Principal axes: T Val= 1.68 Plg=51 Azm=350 N -0.11 36 196 P -1.57 13 96 Best Double Couple:Mo=1.6*10**15 NP1:Strike=149 Dip=45 Slip= 34 NP2: 34 67 130 ##########################################################