"There is no such thing as matter. Everything is energy." Statements such as this are found in every modern physics textbook; but is energy a
The material objects around us are manifest realities that have mass; but what do we mean by 'mass'? In general, it means that all objects near the
Earth's surface possess weight, and also that they possess inertia. Mass is commonly defined as 'the amount of matter in a body', more accurately
as 'the property of matter that measures its resistance to acceleration'. We can say that 'mass' is the quantification of matter that finds
manifestation in weight and inertia. Both of these are observables: they can be detected, sensed, and measured; that is, quantified. They are
qualities or properties of material objects that can be given a value on a scale of measurement.
Similar statements are true of motion. Generally speaking, all objects around us are either stationary or in motion relative to us, as determined by
observation. Motion is also a manifest reality that can be quantified. If we know the mass and motion of an object, we can make statements and
deductions about it. A tennis ball rolling along level ground will slow down and stop, whereas on a slope it will continue to move. In either case,
appropriate measurements allow us to calculate the ball's motion to any desired degree of accuracy using well-established mathematical statements,
and to calculate much else besides: velocity, acceleration, force of impact and so on. These properties can be called parameters of the object from
the Greek para meaning beside and metron meaning measure.
Thus matter demonstrates mass, whilst radiation demonstrates motion; yet matter can also move, and radiation has an effective mass: both are
fundamental components of Physical Reality.
A most useful parameter of a material object is its momentum: the product of mass and velocity: p = mv. Although derived from mass and motion,
momentum is not an observable, but a concept: a calculated parameter. Neither is it a manifest reality as are mass and motion. If an object's
momentum changes, it is NOT the case that momentum has been added to or subtracted from it: rather has its mass or its motion changed, and the
calculated value of its momentum changes accordingly.
A similar parameter is kinetic energy. This, too, is a concept: a mathematical term naming the product of mass and the square of velocity: E =
1/2mv^2. What applies to momentum applies equally to kinetic energy, and to energy in general. It is a calculated quantity, neither an observable, nor
a manifest reality. Energy cannot be added to or taken from an object; rather does it change in accord with mass, motion, position and composition.
All calculation of energy requires the inclusion of a value for mass. If mass is unknown, energy cannot be calculated.
Recall now the first statement of this post, "There is no such thing as matter. Everything is energy." To claim that matter and radiation are both
energy is to replace manifest realities with a mathematical parameter, and this surely is absurd.
It is true that all substance - sc. matter - is ultimately vibration, a contained, stationary resonance rather than the propagating vibrations of
radiation; but vibration is not energy, even though it can be assigned an energetic value. In the case of electromagnetism, Planck's constant
substitutes for the mechanical aspects of mass and motion: E = hf.
In spite of the foregoing, energy has proved to be one of the most valuable concepts in modern science, which is undoubtedly why it has been reified:
that is, turned into a 'thing'. For more than a century, scientists have treated it as an actual physical reality instead of as a useful concept.
What is needed is a new conceptual understanding of mass and motion, rather than the claim that both are composed of concepts.
For more see: vitency.com...