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APIDRA is a sterile, aqueous, clear, and colorless solution. Each milliliter of APIDRA contains 100 units (3.49 mg) insulin glulisine, 3.15 mg metacresol, 6 mg tromethamine, 5 mg sodium chloride, 0.01 mg polysorbate 20, and water for injection. APIDRA has a pH of approximately 7.3. The pH is adjusted by addition of aqueous solutions of hydrochloric acid and/or sodium hydroxide.
LANTUS consists of insulin glargine dissolved in a clear aqueous fluid. Each milliliter of LANTUS (insulin glargine injection) contains 100 IU (3.6378 mg) insulin glargine. Inactive ingredients for the 10 mL vial are 30 mcg zinc, 2.7 mg m-cresol, 20 mg glycerol 85%, 20 mcg polysorbate 20, and water for injection.
Each milliliter of LEVEMIR 10 mL Vial contains the inactive ingredients 65.4 mcg zinc, 2.06 mg m-cresol, 30.0 mg mannitol, 1.80 mg phenol, 0.89 mg disodium phosphate dihydrate, 1.17 mg sodium chloride, and water for injection
NovoLog Mix 70/30 is a uniform, white, sterile suspension that contains insulin aspart (B28 asp regular human insulin analog) 100 Units/mL. Inactive ingredients for the 10 mL vial are mannitol 36.4 mg/mL, phenol 1.50 mg/mL, metacresol 1.72 mg/mL, zinc 19.6 µg/mL, disodium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate 1.25 mg/mL, sodium chloride 0.58 mg/mL, and protamine sulfate 0.32 mg/mL.
Each milliliter of Humalog injection contains insulin lispro 100 Units, 16 mg glycerin, 1.88 mg dibasic sodium phosphate, 3.15 mg Metacresol, zinc oxide content adjusted to provide 0.0197 mg zinc ion, trace amounts of phenol, and water for injection. Humulin-N: Each mL contains 100 units of NPH insulin. Nonmedicinal ingredients: dibasic sodium phosphate, glycerol, m-cresol, phenol, protamine sulfate and zinc. May contain: dimethicone, hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide.
Humulin-R: Each mL contains 100 units of Regular insulin. Nonmedicinal ingredients: glycerol and m-cresol. May contain: dimethicone, hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide.
Hypurin porcine isophane (fast acting) contains Protamine sulphate Zinc chloride m-Cresol Phenol Sodium phosphate Glycerol Water for injections hypourin porcine neutral (longer action) contains m-Cresol Phenol Sodium phosphate Glycerol Water for injections
The diverse structures of phenolic compounds prohibit broad statements about their specific health effects. Further, many purported health claims for specific polyphenol-enriched foods remain unproven.
Many of the phytoestrogens are dietary polyphenols with measurable affinities to estrogen receptors, and positive or negative health effects on humans and livestock. Compared with the effects of polyphenols in vitro, the effects in vivo, although the subject of ongoing research, are limited and vague.
The reasons for this are:
1) the absence of validated in vivo biomarkers, especially for inflammation or carcinogenesis;
2) long-term studies failing to demonstrate effects with a mechanism of action, specificity or efficacy; and
3) invalid applications of high, unphysiological test concentrations in the in vitro studies, which are subsequently irrelevant for the design of in vivo experiments. In rats, polyphenols absorbed in the small intestine may be bound in protein-polyphenol complexes modified by intestinal microflora enzymes, allowing derivative compounds formed by ring-fission to be better absorbed.
A review of studies on the bioavailability of polyphenols published in 2010 found that "definitive conclusions on bioavailability of most polyphenols are difficult to obtain and further studies are necessary."