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Eye Exposure: ]Causes eye burns. May result in corneal injury.
Skin: Causes skin burns. May cause dermatitis. Toxic in contact with skin.
Ingestion: Causes severe digestive tract burns with abdominal pain, vomiting, and possible death. Aspiration of material into the lungs may cause chemical pneumonitis, which may be fatal. Toxic if swallowed. Inhalation: Irritation may lead to chemical pneumonitis and pulmonary edema. Causes chemical burns to the respiratory tract. May be harmful if inhaled.
Chronic: Prolonged or repeated skin contact may cause dermatitis. May cause liver and kidney damage. Repeated exposure may cause central nervous system damage. Adverse reproductive effects have been reported in animals. Laboratory experiments have resulted in mutagenic effects. Animal studies have reported the development of tumors.
These preservatives are not safe, I have been a type 1 for 57 years and developed an inflamatory problem that could not be identified, seems to be my body's reaction to the preservatives, they are petroleum solvents aka benzene and tolulene check out the haz mat sheets.
Spoke to our local office of the fda and they told me these chemicals have an accululative effect, there is no way to rid the body of the disasterous effects of these chemicals. Local poison control didn't know what to do. Spoke to a chemical engineer after he got over the shock, told me there was no way to rid the body, and a constant influx of the chemicals either by injection or infusion will continue to destroy the tissues.
As it is I am having a problem looking for new infusion sights or injection sites as the tissues or so damaged the insulin does not absorb correctly, sometimes I have to overdose just to get the right amount, i lose about 25% in the damaged tissues.
I'm just curious here...but how are we defining GMO? You note it goes back as far as regular Insulin has been available and for all I know, that's entirely accurate. I had thought the ability to successfully manipulate life and organisms on the genetic level was a relatively new science and new skill though?
Recombinant DNA (rDNA) molecules are DNA molecules formed by laboratory methods of genetic recombination (such as molecular cloning) to bring together genetic material from multiple sources, creating sequences that would not otherwise be found in biological organisms.
The connecting peptide, or C-peptide, is a short 31-amino-acid protein that connects insulin's A-chain to its B-chain in the proinsulin molecule.
In the insulin synthesis pathway, first preproinsulin is secreted from the beta cells of the pancreas with an A-chain, a C-peptide, a B-chain, and a signal sequence. The signal sequence is cleaved from the N-terminus of the peptide by a signal peptidase, leaving proinsulin. Then the C-peptide is removed, leaving the A-chain and B-chain that constitute the insulin molecule.
Cellular effects of C-peptide - C-peptide has been shown to bind to the surface of a number of cell types such as neuronal, endothelial, fibroblast and renal tubular, at nanomolar concentrations to a receptor that is likely G-protein-coupled. The signal activates Ca2+-dependent intracellular signaling pathways such as MAPK, PLCγ, and PKC, leading to upregulation of a range of transcription factors as well as eNOS and Na+K+ATPase activities.The latter two enzymes are known to have reduced activities in patients with type I diabetes and have been implicated in the development of long-term complications of type I diabetes such as peripheral and autonomic neuropathy.
In vivo studies in animal models of type 1 diabetes have established that C-peptide administration results in significant improvements in nerve and kidney function. Thus, in animals with early signs of diabetes-induced neuropathy, C peptide treatment in replacement dosage results in improved peripheral nerve function, as evidenced by increased nerve conduction velocity, increased nerve Na+,K+ ATPase activity, and significant amelioration of nerve structural changes. Likewise, C-peptide administration in animals that had C-peptide deficiency (type 1 model) with nephropathy improves renal function and structure; it decreases urinary albumin excretion and prevents or decreases diabetes-induced glomerular changes secondary to mesangial matrix expansion.
C-peptide also has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effects as well as aid repair of smooth muscle cells.
Proinsulin is synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum, where it is folded and its disulfide bonds are oxidized. It is then transported to the Golgi apparatus where it is packaged into secretory vesicles, and where it is processed by a series of proteases to form mature insulin. Mature insulin has 35 fewer amino acids; 4 are removed altogether, and the remaining 31 form the C-peptide. The C-peptide is abstracted from the center of the proinsulin sequence; the two other ends (the B chain and A chain) remain connected by disulfide bonds.
Abstract: The proinsulin connecting peptide, C-peptide, is a cleavage product of insulin synthesis that is co-secreted with insulin by pancreatic β-cells following glucose stimulation. Recombinant insulin, used in the treatment of diabetes, lacks C-peptide and preclinical and clinical studies suggest that lack of C-peptide may exacerbate diabetes-associated complications.