It looks like you're using an Ad Blocker.
Please white-list or disable AboveTopSecret.com in your ad-blocking tool.
Some features of ATS will be disabled while you continue to use an ad-blocker.
average life expectancy = 40 years
Mid-Victorian Era life expectancy = Liverpool = 15!!!!
3 out of every 20 babies die before their first birthday
1899 upper class Liverpool = 136 newborns out of 1000 would die before the age of 1
Working class = 274 infant deaths per 1000 births
Impoverished slums = 509 infant deaths per 1000 births
Alexander Finlaison reported = 1/2 of all children of farmers, laborers, artisans, & servants died before 5th birthday compared to 1 in 11 children of the land owning gentry
children suffer = influenza outbreaks, diphtheria, scarlet fever, measles, whooping cough, polio, tetanus, and typhoid
poor sanitary conditions (no piped water, lack of immunizations, etc.) contribute to death rate
All have bad breath because of poor dentistry
(modern research indicates poor dental hygiene has a direct correlation to earlier death rates)
• died younger (childbirth, inferior food consumption, tended to nurse sick which led to own sickness, etc.)
• Societal expectations of rich women = delicate, not “ladylike” to exercise or have an appetite
•custom = best food given to boys / men (females suffered)... amazingly, this contradicted the notion of the rich that women were weaker ... obviously, weaker vessels needed to have the best food and not the men ... but folks are never consistent & may never be logical (now or then)
Lower classes ... debilitated by the age of forty due long hours, poor nutrition (frequently malnutrition), and premature full-time employment = early death cause
1840 London’s Whitechapel District = (average rates)
Upper class =45 years
Tradesmen = 27 years
Laborers & servants = 22 years
[Source: Mitchell, Sally. Victorian Britain Encyclopedia. New York: Garland Publishing, 1988.
Mitchell, Sally. Daily Life in Victorian England. Westport, CN: Greenwood Press, 1996]
Coffins are a Familiar Sight
Cholera = pandemic in Europe in 1831-33, 1848-49, 1853-54, 65-67
( London, 53 000 died in one year)
In a tiny shotgun cabin
Martha's baby girl was born.
A baby born to slavery
That no one could forewarn.
Cathay Williams was determined
And never was deterred
As she began her life as a house girl
Being seen but never heard.
Then the Civil War broke out
And the Union soldiers came
And taking Cathay with them
Her life would never be the same.
Cathay learned the ways of military life
And became an accomplished cook.
She was sent to General Sheridan
A job she proudly undertook.
Then the Civil War was ended
And Cathay was finally free
And in seeking out her freedom,
She found her place in history.
Her own way she needed to make
And a burden to no one be
So as a Buffalo Soldier she joined up
In the 38th U. S. Infantry.
Cathay Williams became William Cathay
And no one was to know
The secret of her identity
As a soldier she did grow.
The troops moved west to Ft. Cummings
To keep the Apache at bay.
There were one hundred and one enlisted men
And among them was William Cathay.
After two years as a soldier
In the 38th Company A
William went to see the doctor
And her secret came out that day
Discharged as a Buffalo Soldier
Cathay did her very best
As she continued to make her way
In this land they called the West.
Because of her illegal enlistment
Her pension passed her by
But she picked herself up and moved on
And never questioned why.
Life ended for Cathay Williams
At the age of eighty-two
She lived a long independent life
A life that was tried but true.
A salute to Cathay Williams
The hero of this rhyme
A special woman of the west
A legend in her time.
In Memory of Phoebe Hessel Who was born at Stepney in the year 1713. She served for many years As a private Soldier in the 5th Regiment of foot In different parts of Europe, And in the year 1745 fought under the command Of the Duke of Cumberland, At the Battle of Fontenoy, Where she received a Bayonet Wound in her Arm. Her long life, which commenced in the time of Queen Anne, Extended to the reign of George IV, By whose munificence she received comfort And support in her latter Years. She died at Brighton, where she long resided, December 12th, 1821, Aged 108 years.