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Japan declares 'nuclear emergency' after quake

page: 917.htm
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posted on Jun, 5 2011 @ 04:42 PM
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reply to post by Purplechive
 


These workers need to have the cool suits that race car drivers wear that circulates cold water throughout tubes in the suit. And better radiation suits would also help instead of paper scrubs.




posted on Jun, 5 2011 @ 05:05 PM
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" Faults unconsidered in the seismic design of Fukushima Daiichi "

www.tepco.co.jp...

5 days ago

Sorry I hadn't seen this before, you got to love (not) the way they dump this info out in the midst of all of this, not before when something could have been done (perhaps)....my favourite bit:

"11 - Fault in Fukushima Power Station - No Name"

They actually managed to get it it's very own fault line on site....on powdery rock, now flooding and with added criticalities, welcome to the party everyone!

[Best add that to the parameters for the sarcophagus/containment solutions to withstand then...?]
edit on 5-6-2011 by curioustype because: added comment to link to earlier discussion re sarcophagus



posted on Jun, 5 2011 @ 05:32 PM
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There are some pictures in this pdf showing elements and schematic of the water purification process:

cryptome.org...

Thought it was worth having.



posted on Jun, 5 2011 @ 06:30 PM
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Originally posted by Destinyone
I'm so happy to see independent groups of experts banding together to get to the truth.



Marine Scientists Begin Cruise Off Fukushima




Three months after the tsunami-stricken Fukushima Daiichi plant began leaking unprecedented amounts of radioactive isotopes, an interdisciplinary group of scientists will begin measuring the radioactivity in the ocean east of Japan on 4 June. Led by Ken Buesseler of Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), the cruise will carry 17 researchers from several countries on a 15-day exped




"We need to trace where the radionuclides are going, and how much is making it offshore," says Steven Jayne, a physical oceanographer from WHOI. The research vessel, Kaimikai‑O‑Kanoloa, will monitor radiation levels over 400 square km, crisscrossing the strong Kuroshio Current that runs northward along the east coast of Japan. The radiation spill, Jayne says, also provides a unique way of tracing the Japanese currents. "It's like pouring dye into the ocean," he says. The Kuroshio Current, similar to the Gulf Stream of the Atlantic, is a crucial factor in fish migration patterns and can slow or speed international shipping in the Pacific Ocean.

The WHOI group will monitor water 300 km offshore, an area with large fisheries for tuna and other seafood.

news.sciencemag.org...


Des


The " independent groups of experts banding together to get to the truth" are not there to get the truth. It is another white-wash. I checked out the money behind it, "The Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation" and they are the enemy. Here is a link to an article "Fake Marine Protection" which The Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation is involved with.www.facebook.com...
The " Marine Life Protection Act (MLPA) Initiative" is not a good thing period. I have known about the MLPA for about 6 months, and it is more United Nations New World Order Agenda.That agenda is Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation's agenda.

One of the "marine scientist" is also from IAEA



posted on Jun, 5 2011 @ 06:42 PM
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reply to post by NOMOREFEDRESERVE
 


I was wondering earlier how come they managed to gain access without any of the fuss that surrounded the Greenpeace attempt, perhaps you have answered my question.

It would be interesting if Greenpeace were to enquire about accompanying/shadowing the voyage in their own ship whether they would gain permission. Surely from a scientific perspective the more data and corroboration of results/credibility, the better?



posted on Jun, 5 2011 @ 06:55 PM
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Is there an explanation for TEPCOs live cam to be bright with visibility clear all the way down to the mountains in the distance, and JNNs to be fogged in, with occasional birds flying by, and barely being able to make out the towers in the distance.



posted on Jun, 5 2011 @ 06:56 PM
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reply to post by curioustype
 


Good find Curioustype - Thanks!

Wondering..."Cesium Absorption"...that seems kind of limited. Thought there was a bunch of soluble radioactive isotopes besides cesium.

And "Desalinization"...thought that TEPCO had reverted to solely fresh water because of the corrosion factor.

Still wonder just how potable the water is gonna be when they are done treating it.

I guess if I took my septic tank and just filtered out the toilet paper...

- Purple Chive



posted on Jun, 5 2011 @ 07:11 PM
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I suggest that we start a new thread on Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) and this scientific expedition. We could probably find stuff posted to the web which would give us another avenue to reasonably real data - or at least another viewpoint.

I think at this stage of the game, the 'other side' will try to hide information within the vast amounts of information, as we already seeing. LIke the US government do too. So this means that we have to be on our guard for documents which are published without a big press fanfare.



posted on Jun, 5 2011 @ 07:22 PM
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reply to post by Purplechive
 


PC

How intresting it is becomming now that some of the early "tracer" element tracking is being made public. I'm sure all the "physics" types (glad they are here) have concluded these folks knew EXACTLY what happened in the first 48 hours of this event!!

As sad and tragic as it is, we are getting a real lesson on what happens when the nuclear industry fails to the maxium. Keep in mind that my memory is a little faulty (over 65), so I forgot most of the basics of radiation (from my training in SAC). If I were to hazzard a guess, I would say we are looking at least a year of continued 24/7/365 fussion. Remember that full-load of fresh rods in SFP 4. What happens when they go unstable?? Does anyone here actually think these folks have the ability to manage a single thing. Remember, their solution to every problem is add water, move water, store water in leaky office basements, dump water into the ocean!!

Here's a thought. Suppose they do come up with a method to filter out C137 from the water. It's half life still remains 30 years. But what they will accomplish is producing some VERY SERIOUSLY RADIATED filter medium. Wonder who will get the job of swapping out filters?? I may be over 65, but forget about it!!

How did you like the story about prefactures burning radiated materials?? Yea, electronic filters removes radiation!! Not to mention the wonderful pile of radiated ashes it will leave behind!!

Remember in the very early days of this how those wto kinda skinny guys had the cartoonish mockup of the reactor buildings with the cutout fire trucks? Remember how they just pushed the cutouts up to each reactor building and the truck squirted out magic coolant, then left? See, everything is under control!!

Tepco. What you are doing (or not doing) is severly offending even my limited intellect! And if you knew me, you would realize the true depth and quality of this insult!!

Goodnight Gracie!!



posted on Jun, 5 2011 @ 07:28 PM
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You know with the high levels of radiation pouring out into the ocean, they always say the ocean will mitigate this, well...............

en.wikipedia.org...


It begins off the east coast of Taiwan and flows northeastward past Japan, where it merges with the easterly drift of the North Pacific Current. It is analogous to the Gulf Stream in the Atlantic Ocean, transporting warm, tropical water northward towards the polar region. It is also sometimes known as the Black Stream — the English translation of kuroshio, and an allusion to the deep blue of its water—and also as the "Japan Current" (日本海流 Nihon Kairyū ?).

The path of Kuroshio south of Japan is reported every day.[1] Its counterparts are the North Pacific Current to the north, the California Current to the east, and the North Equatorial Current to the south. The warm waters of the Kuroshio Current sustain the coral reefs of Japan, the northernmost coral reefs in the world. The branch into the Sea of Japan is called Tsushima Current (対馬海流 Tsushima Kairyū ?). The Japan Current is also responsible for the mild weather experienced around Alaska's southern coast and in British Columbia.
.......


The Kuroshio is a warm current (24°C annual average sea surface temperature), about 100 km wide and produces frequent small to meso-scale eddies. The Kuroshio Current is ranked as a moderately high productivity ecosystem.....


There are many complex interactions with the warm-core ring and thus lifetime productivity is not very different from the surrounding shelf water. A study in 1998[2] found that the primary productivity within a warm-core ring was almost the same as in the cold jet outside it, with evidence of upwelling of nutrients within the ring. In addition, there was discovery of dense populations of phytoplankton at the nutricline within a ring, presumably supported by upward mixing of nutrients.


Thats a very fast freeway!!!!!!!

And rich in tropical fish, and plankton!



posted on Jun, 5 2011 @ 08:14 PM
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Finally fessing up to finding some plutonium:

Plutonium found outside Fukushima plant



Minute amounts of plutonium have been detected for the first time in soil outside the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant.

Shinzo Kimura of Hokkaido University collected the roadside samples in Okumamachi, some 1.7 kilometers west of the front gate of the power station. They were taken during filming by NHK on April 21st, one day before the area was designated as an exclusion zone.

Professor Masayoshi Yamamoto and researchers at a Kanazawa University laboratory analyzed the samples and found minute amounts of 3 kinds of plutonium.

The samples of plutonium-239 and 240 make up a total of 0.078 becquerels per kilogram.

This is close to the amount produced by past atomic bomb tests

NHK
drip...drip...drip



posted on Jun, 5 2011 @ 09:45 PM
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Hmm.. this is interesting. "Is U.S. heading for baby boy boom?" "Nuclear age has led to millions of fewer baby girls being born"
"GSDF member recounts fearing for life in blast at Fukushima plant"
Max. Radiation levels in Eastern Japan
This map is apparently from June 6th, 2011.
& Just wanted to say this thread is amazing. I check out other threads but I haven't followed one. I've been here from day 1 and the knowledge and insight and contributions of everyone has made this thread strong. Just when I think it is dying down I check back and it has grown a couple more pages.



posted on Jun, 6 2011 @ 01:58 AM
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Originally posted by Maluhia
Finally fessing up to finding some plutonium:

Plutonium found outside Fukushima plant



Minute amounts of plutonium have been detected for the first time in soil outside the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant.

Shinzo Kimura of Hokkaido University collected the roadside samples in Okumamachi, some 1.7 kilometers west of the front gate of the power station. They were taken during filming by NHK on April 21st, one day before the area was designated as an exclusion zone.

Professor Masayoshi Yamamoto and researchers at a Kanazawa University laboratory analyzed the samples and found minute amounts of 3 kinds of plutonium.

The samples of plutonium-239 and 240 make up a total of 0.078 becquerels per kilogram.

This is close to the amount produced by past atomic bomb tests

NHK
drip...drip...drip


Well that doesn't sound too bad does it?

I mean maybe it's just an itty-bitty bit that fell off a worker's coat on their way home - like in The Simpsons?

Except, now there's all the data, photos, first hand and independent scientific accounts that indicate several likely sources of powdered or "atomised" plutonium may have been part of the cocktail of nasties emitted in either the initial explosions, or subsequent fires and/or ongoing meltdowns...

Oh, and the fact that one particle of plutonium inhaled/ingested is guaranteed to lead to cancer, oh & wasn't 239's half life c.25,000 years? Oh, and that if that was how that itty-bit got there, then couldn't anywhere under the plumes be where we may find all that ickle sample's missing relatives?

Hey, now they've found a prof' with access to the kit to find plutonium in samples, do you think he could find time to do a few more, you know just to check whether this was just a one off or maybe one of the biggest freakin' disasters in history? I mean we've been waiting since 11/3....



posted on Jun, 6 2011 @ 02:01 AM
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Originally posted by xxPUSH0Noo
Hmm.. this is interesting. "Is U.S. heading for baby boy boom?" "Nuclear age has led to millions of fewer baby girls being born"
"GSDF member recounts fearing for life in blast at Fukushima plant"
Max. Radiation levels in Eastern Japan
This map is apparently from June 6th, 2011.
& Just wanted to say this thread is amazing. I check out other threads but I haven't followed one. I've been here from day 1 and the knowledge and insight and contributions of everyone has made this thread strong. Just when I think it is dying down I check back and it has grown a couple more pages.


The following is copied from the article in the link:

"Tests showed that radiation caused damage to the X chromosome in sperm, Dr Scherb said.
A human sperm cell contains either an X or Y chromosome, while an egg only has a Y chromosome.

An XY combination will become a boy, while an XX combination will be a girl.
Geneticist Karl Sperling of the Institute of Medical Genetics and Human Genetics in Berlin, told National Geographic the study is 'the most convincing documentation' so far that radiation may lead to a gender bias in humans."


How do they get an "XX" combination out of an X or Y combined with a Y?
I think their study was flawed from the beginning. Their conclusion is the exact opposite of the findings of DR. Leuren Moret. I would bet my house on Leuren Moret everytime.



posted on Jun, 6 2011 @ 02:53 AM
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Who is Leuren Moret? This is from the "12/28/2009
DU- Depleted Uranium - Testimony of Leuren Moret for the International Criminal Tribunal for Afghanistan"

"Leuren Moret is an independent scientist and international expert on radiation and public health issues. She is on the organizing committee of the World Committee on Radiation Risk (WCRR), an organization of independent radiation specialists including members of the radiation committee in the EU Parliament - European Committee on Radiation Risk (ECRR). She is an Environmental Commissioner for the City of Berkeley

Ms. Moret earned her B.S. in Geology at U.C. Davis in 1968, and her M.A. in Near Eastern Studies from U.C. Berkeley in 1978. She has completed all but her dissertation for a PhD. in the Geosciences at U.C. Davis. She has traveled and conducted scientific research in 42 countries.
She wrote a scientific report on depleted uranium for the United Nations subcommission investigating the illegality of depleted uranium munitions. She has been trained on radiation issues by Marion Fulk, a former Manhattan Project Scientist and retired insider at the Livermore Lab who is an expert on radioactive fallout and rainout."
exopolitics.blogs.com... ghanistan.html

The following is from an interview with Leuren Moret on May 9 2011.
Now in Japan the government complicity was just absolutely horrendous. TEPCO was appearing to be incompetent in its response, its very slow and ineffective response to damages to six nuclear power plants at Fukushima. Chernobyl was just one, and it was a much smaller one, yet they had it under control very rapidly within just a couple of weeks. But we have been nearly two months now and Fukushima is not under control. Far from it. Now it seems that TEPCO was not actually running the response. The government and the regulatory agencies and the international agencies such as the IAEA, the UN, and the WHO said very little, but someone was running that response, and we now know that it was the Department of Energy. I thought it was General Electric, but I knew it was an American -- a U.S. Government involvement because we have 14 military bases in Japan and the Rockefellers bought up a lot of the disaster landscape after World War II in Japan, including radioactive Hiroshima and Nagasaki. And they have made huge fortunes in rebuilding Japan and if you want to know who owns SONY, we thought it was a Japanese company, but actually it stands for Standard Oil of New York. So it is the Rockefellers who own SONY as well. Now there were very low-level people left in the plant and this is right after the explosions occurred which made it impossible for cooling systems to work. But actually all the reactors were in melt-down 90 minutes after the earthquake because 90 minutes after the cooling system stops, a reactor goes into melt-down, and there was no way to get the cooling system started. The main cooling system that operates normally has the pump down on the beach. Why in the world you put a pump for a nuclear power plant where a magnitude 8 or greater earthquake happens every five years, and the history of Japan and tsunamis, I mean that is a Japanese word for these huge tidal waves that are caused by large magnitude earthquakes, so that would seem a very, very poor design. Also, the backup first system, which was a diesel backup cooling system, was in the basement under the reactor. Why in the world would you put a power plant right on the ocean and then put the back up cooling system under the reactor in a room, a basement room, that would immediately be flooded? So it seems like it wasn't just poor design. It seems like there was planning, very careful planning, that would sabotage the safety of these nuclear power plants in the event of earthquakes and tsunamis. Of course the diesel system flooded. The workers tried to get the pump on the beach to start up, they couldn't do that. There was no electricity coming into the plant, so they resorted to their last backup system, which is battery driven, and even that couldn't work because a Stuxnet virus created by the CIA with the help of Siemens and the Mossad was also involved. It sabotaged the operating system in the power plant, and no matter what they did to correct whatever they could correct, including probably the software and the operating system, it was immediately changed back to the sabotage code, and this was done remotely through satellites, probably NSA. So those nuclear power plants, all six of them, have absolutely been in melt-down since 90 minutes after the earthquake. Also, no expert engineers have been allowed in the plant. They would know how to deal with this issue. This really requires the aid of an international consortium of experts and governments and military to resolve this issue. But it is too late now. The molten fuel has burned through the bottom of the reactors. Melted through the bottom of the reactors. It is in the ground now. It has even melted through the bottom of the operating plant. So the secrecy in the past week has intensified during this first week of May, 2011. So it is not getting better, it is getting worse. And the United States Government has been complicit in this. They confiscated iodine supplies that U.S. citizens should have been taking. Actually they should have evacuated the West Coast of North America. We are all terribly contaminated now. And they used weather modification to cause two weeks of rain beginning March 18th to the 30th when the highly radioactive dust and nanoparticles were arriving in huge plumes that went all over North America, the Arctic, Mexico, and then part of what was carried out to Hawaii in that Pacific gyre that I mentioned, circulation system. And when you look at iodine levels in the northern hemisphere, Japan has the highest, this is radioactive iodine, Hawaii has the second highest, which is nearly tied with the West Coast of North America, but with slightly less, and that radiation went across the Atlantic straight into the Mediterranean. And North Africa, Israel, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey, and the Middle East are all now contaminated. And it went over the Northwest Territories and the Arctic into the North Atlantic and contaminated all of Scandinavia and into Russia. So we truly have a global radiation disaster that is not getting better, it is getting worse every day, and this is two months later. And, I mean just to really make it really clear that the U.S. is complicit in it, the public health departments in two counties that I have letters from, and I am sure it was in all counties and probably all states, went out on March 17th, the day before the radiation arrived from the unit one explosion, and all doctors, medical doctors were instructed not to provide iodine tablets or any iodine protection to patients who were concerned about exposure. There were also people in full body suits in Santa Clara County which is where Stanford University and Silicon Valley are, and they were taking water samples in full high level contamination gear, and they chased citizens and people away where they were taking the samples. People were asking why they were doing it. And the EPA did exactly the same thing as the World Trade Center site. They were taking air samples with oxygen tanks on their backs on the highest level of protective gear. Now we had from March 18th to the 30th very, very heavy rains along the Pacific Coastline, at least in California and I had reports from Arizona, and these correspond to --these started on March 18th, the day the radiation arrives, and the military has said since 1947, even in public newspapers, that the most efficient form of nuclear war is to explode bombs in rain clouds. Well, what they have done is substitute a nuclear power plant on fire and releasing the same thing that comes out of nuclear bombs into the global atmosphere, the northern hemisphere. But what is here today is somewhere else tomorrow, and it only takes about a week for radiation to arrive from Japan in California. So what is going to happen is that, well, President Obama took his family to the southern hemisphere. He was not even in the northern hemisphere for two weeks after the earthquake, and Governor Jerry Brown, whose sister works for Goldman Sachs, in other words the Rothschilds and the City of London bankers, he declared an emergency because of the heavy rains and flooding. We were having an inch an hour for two weeks in some places, and California has an average of 14 inches a year, and this is also the end of the rainy season, so why in the world would we have more rain in two weeks than we have had probably in ten years? However, Jerry Brown never mentioned radiation at all. And the EPA is not reporting radiation levels from their 124 radiation monitors all over the United States. And what is really alarming, Alfred, and I want the audience to be sure to not go out in the rain, and if they have to, to cover themselves completely, including gloves, because this radiation will go right through their skin into their tissues and blood. And globally, the highest increase in autism and diabetes, new cases, diagnosed, always occur when the rain begins in countries and cities and regions around the world. So clearly, something is washing out of the sky, out of the atmosphere in the rain drops and in snow that is causing autism and diabetes. And I when I went to Japan, and I got the vital statistics of Japan, the government data on health and disease, I was able to go back to 1898 before there was any manmade radiation in the environment. That is the real baseline. And that data, when I put it on a graph proved that the large rise in chronic illnesses since 1945 and the introduction of the nuclear age have occurred with the introduction of nuclear technology.
www.amfirstbooks.com...



posted on Jun, 6 2011 @ 05:18 AM
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mdn.mainichi.jp...

Radioactivity of materials released in Fukushima nuclear crisis revised upward

The Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) on June 6 revised the level of radioactivity of materials emitted from the crisis hit Fukushima No. 1 Nuclear Power Plant from 370,000 terabecquerels to 850,000 terabecquerels.

The Cabinet Office's Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan (NSC) had estimated that the total level of radioactivity stood at around 630,000 terabecquerels, but this figure was criticized as an underestimation. NISA officials plan to present the new figure at a ministerial meeting of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) after reporting it to the NSC.

The NSC and NISA, which operates under the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, announced a figure for the total amount of radioactivity on April 12, when the severity of the Fukushima nuclear crisis on the International Nuclear Events Scale was raised to level 7, matching that of the Chernobyl nuclear accident. In the Chernobyl accident, the total amount of radioactivity reached 5.2 million terabecquerels.

The NSC calculated the amount of radioactive materials released into the air between the outset of the crisis and April 5, based on the amount of radiation from measurements taken near the plant. NISA based its calculations on the state of the plant's reactors.

The latest figure takes into consideration the release of radioactive materials during explosions at the plant's No. 2 and 3 reactors. The INES scale designates leaks of tens of thousands of terabecquerels as level 7 events, and the seriousness of the disaster on the scale will not change as a result of NISA's revision of the amount.



posted on Jun, 6 2011 @ 06:21 AM
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Originally posted by NOMOREFEDRESERVE

Originally posted by xxPUSH0Noo
Hmm.. this is interesting. "Is U.S. heading for baby boy boom?" "Nuclear age has led to millions of fewer baby girls being born"
"GSDF member recounts fearing for life in blast at Fukushima plant"
Max. Radiation levels in Eastern Japan
This map is apparently from June 6th, 2011.
& Just wanted to say this thread is amazing. I check out other threads but I haven't followed one. I've been here from day 1 and the knowledge and insight and contributions of everyone has made this thread strong. Just when I think it is dying down I check back and it has grown a couple more pages.


The following is copied from the article in the link:

"Tests showed that radiation caused damage to the X chromosome in sperm, Dr Scherb said.
A human sperm cell contains either an X or Y chromosome, while an egg only has a Y chromosome.

An XY combination will become a boy, while an XX combination will be a girl.
Geneticist Karl Sperling of the Institute of Medical Genetics and Human Genetics in Berlin, told National Geographic the study is 'the most convincing documentation' so far that radiation may lead to a gender bias in humans."


How do they get an "XX" combination out of an X or Y combined with a Y?
I think their study was flawed from the beginning. Their conclusion is the exact opposite of the findings of DR. Leuren Moret. I would bet my house on Leuren Moret everytime.




I think it is a classical case of bad journalism. The egg only has a X chromosome, and damage to the X chromosome in the sperm will lead to more boys being born. (the gender bias). Will try to find the original article, but I think the journalist that wrote the article in the Daily Mail doesn't have an idea about genetics, and didn't understand the article that he/she read. Not sure why radiation would damage the X-chromosome more than the Y-chromosome, and a couple of other things doesn't make perfect sense in this report.

Ok, found the article in National Geographic, news.nationalgeographic.com..., which is better written than the Daily Mail one.

Here is a link to the original article : www.springerlink.com...

They looked at the statistical trend, and the conclusion is that yes, more boys are being born after radiation, which is the opposite trend than what you would get with normal damage caused by toxins, in which the Y-chromosome are normally damaged. Will look if I can get more information on this interesting effect.


edit on 6/6/2011 by Hellhound604 because: (no reason given)

edit on 6/6/2011 by Hellhound604 because: (no reason given)

edit on 6/6/2011 by Hellhound604 because: Added the NGC article

edit on 6/6/2011 by Hellhound604 because: added link to original article

edit on 6/6/2011 by Hellhound604 because: (no reason given)

edit on 6/6/2011 by Hellhound604 because: (no reason given)



posted on Jun, 6 2011 @ 07:00 AM
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BBC Report Fukushima older worker Suicide Squads.

This report seems to be more accurate than most MSM reporting. However, it is within the 'Reporters' section of the news which often has stories that are obscure and seldom seen (or watched).



edit on 6/6/11 by imlite because: (no reason given)



posted on Jun, 6 2011 @ 07:30 AM
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reply to post by Purplechive
 


I know this video was posted, but!!

www.youtube.com...

Steam???!!! They do know that the jello-like shaking surface is the top of the water surface.. They do understand that whatever is below that floor is completly filled with boiling water?? Not just "leaked" water, but boiling water. Simple experiment for these TEPCO engineers to prove boiling water needs a constant and high heat source to continue boiling. Put a pot of water on a stove and set the heat on high. The water will boil. Remove the source of heat and the boiling stops. Return the heat source and it boils again. So now TEPCO, snap quiz!!

What is causing the water below the floor to boil?

1) Sunlight
2) Ignited gas leak
3) overheated tempers
4) not being watched enough (you know, watched pots never boil)
5) melted fuel rods that can NEVER be brought under control

Hint: Pretend the first 4 answers are not there!!! Now remember, the water is still boiling!!



posted on Jun, 6 2011 @ 07:47 AM
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reply to post by VisionsOfMann
 


Kr-85 Emissions

When plutonium is separated from spent nuclear fuel, the fission gas isotope krypton-85 (Kr-85) is released to the atmosphere in the course of the chemical process. Because this noble gas isotope has no relevant natural sources, it can be used as an indicator for clandestine production of plutonium, which is a nuclear-weapons-usable material.

Krypton-85 pollution and atmospheric electricity

Krypton-85 is a chemically inert radioactive gas present in the atmosphere, concentrations of which have been greatly increased by nuclear reprocessing and weapons testing since 1945. The long half-life (10.7 yr), allows the gas to mix thoroughly in the atmosphere. Ionization caused by krypton-85 increases the electrical conductivity of atmospheric air. Further increases in krypton-85 emissions seem inevitable. The increase in air conductivity due to release of krypton-85 will vary with height, and be larger over the oceans than over the land. Increases in conductivity will produce uncertain effects on atmospheric phenomena, so changes are compared in magnitude with other factors perturbing the conductivity, such as combustion aerosol burdens, volcanic eruptions and nuclear weapons testing. Conductivity changes are expected to have the greatest significance for meteorological phenomena close to the source.

Simulations of atmospheric krypton-85 to assess the detectability of
clandestine nuclear reprocessing

The results of this study were achieved in the project “Simulation of Atmospheric Noble Gas
Concentrations to Assess Sampling Procedures for the Detection of Clandestine Nuclear
Reprocessing” (IAEA GER 1643) in the joint programme of IAEA and Federal Government of
Germany. In the first year of the project the detectability of additional krypton-85 sources was
investigated using atmospheric transport modelling. Krypton-85 is released into the air during
reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel rods. Therefore the krypton-85 signature can possibly be used for
the detection of undeclared plutonium separation.
First, the global krypton-85 background produced by known reprocessing facilities from 1971 until
2006 was simulated with the atmospheric general circulation model ECHAM5 using annual emission
data. The model results were evaluated by extensive comparison with measurements performed by the
German Federal Office for Radiation Protection. Of particular interest for an assessment of the
detectability of unknown sources is the background variability. The variability of concentrations is
very high over central Europe, where the large reprocessing plants La Hague and Sellafield are
located, and it is very low on the Southern Hemisphere, where no nuclear reprocessing takes place.
The analysis of concentration time series on various time scales allows partly a distinction between
fluctuations caused by the variability of the sources from variations due to atmospheric dynamics.
Furthermore the detection sensitivity to a set of arbitrarily specified source locations is analysed with a
Lagrangian particle dispersion model. This, in combination with the location specific background
variability, is giving first benchmarks on the capability of using krypton-85 for IAEA Safeguards
based on the Additional Protocols foreseeing environmental sampling.



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