It looks like you're using an Ad Blocker.
Please white-list or disable AboveTopSecret.com in your ad-blocking tool.
Some features of ATS will be disabled while you continue to use an ad-blocker.
Originally posted by zorgon
AARGGGGGGGGG Bring back the Samurai
Originally posted by Silverlok
reply to post by ALTERNATECH
Agreed and in addition :
Areva's assessment , flawed as it is in some spots , is that ALL of the fissile material from #4 became aerosol, clearly they are at least somewhat wrong on that from the poolium falls , but a large mass of it did.
Based on test for aerosol production from fissile materials the particulate size tends to clump in a range between 1.5 and 9 micrometers with few tending to clumps over 30micro meters , pressure is almost an insignificant factor in the aerosol formation but heat is very critical( the higher the temperature during production the more material is aerosol-ed) , certainly a concern when considering "open -air" melt-downs as the pool in four was
Under a number of probable conditions plutonium forms aerosols of micron-sized particlates. When lost into uncontrolled air these particulates can remain suspended for a significant time, and if inhaled they are preferentially deposited in the deep lung tissue, where their long residence time and high alpha activity can result in a locally intense tissue exposure. The lung cancer risk associated with these radiologically unique aerosols is unknown to orders of magnitude. Present plutonium standards are certainly irrelevant and probably conservative. Even so, the fact that under present standards, the permissible air concentrations are about one part per million billion is a commentary on plutonium's potenial as a pollutant. Its insolubility and long half-life make the continuing resuspension of particulate contamination another unresolved concern of serious proportions.
Overview Plutonium like other actinides readily forms a dioxide plutonyl core (PuO2). In the environment, this plutonyl core readily complexes with carbonate as well as other oxygen moieties (OH-, NO2-, NO3-, and SO4−2) to form charged complexes which can be readily mobile with low affinities to soil.
PuO2 formed from neutralizing highly acidic nitric acid solutions tends to form polymeric PuO2 which is resistant to complexation. Plutonium also readily shifts valences between the +3, +4, +5 and +6 states. It is common for some fraction of plutonium in solution to exist in all of these states in equilibrium.
Binding to soil
Plutonium is known to bind to soil particles very strongly, see above for a X-ray spectroscopic study of plutonium in soil and concrete. While caesium has very different chemistry to the actinides, it is well known that both caesium and many of the actinides bind strongly to the minerals in soil. Hence it has been possible to use 134Cs labeled soil to study the migration of Pu and Cs is soils. It has been shown that colloidal transport processes control the migration of Cs (and will control the migration of Pu) in the soil at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant according to R.D. Whicker and S.A. Ibrahim, Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 2006, 88, 171-188.
Mary Neu (at Los Alamos in the USA) has done some work which suggests that bacteria can accumulate plutonium because the iron transport systems used by the bacteria also function as plutonium transport systems.
Plutonium ingested by or injected into humans is transported in the transferrin based iron(III) transport system and then is stored in the liver in the iron store (ferritin), after an exposure to plutonium it is important to rapidly inject the subject with a chelating agent such as calcium complex of DTPA.[dead link] This antidote is useful for a single one off exposure such as that which would occur if a glove box worker was to cut their hand with a Pu contaminated object. The calcium complex has faster metal binding kinetics than the zinc complex but if the calcium complex is used for a long time it tends to remove important minerals from the person. The zinc complex is less able to cause these effects.
Plutonium that is inhaled by humans lodges in the lungs and is slowly translocated to the lymph nodes. Inhaled plutonium has been shown to lead to lung cancer in experimental animals.
Global DIRT- Nuclear Assessment Team detects radiation levels above 100uSv over 25 km from nuclear plant
Originally posted by iforget
Originally posted by zorgon
AARGGGGGGGGG Bring back the Samurai
this is part of the problem loyalty to your master even at the expense of your destruction is the key belief of the samurai
Originally posted by windwaker
reply to post by ikonoklast
People who willingly eat radioactive food and tell others to eat it don't really deserve to live in my opinion. I have no sympathy for them.
More than 40 years on, Spain revisits a nuclear accident ·
Wide contamination from US bomber crash found ·
Study prompted by rapid growth of holiday villas
Nobody died or is known to have developed cancer, but Spain's worst nuclear accident took three months and the work of 1,600 US specialists to clean up before it was promptly forgotten outside of Spain.
The amnesia was helped along with a now legendary stunt by the former minister of tourism under Franco, Manuel Fraga, who took a much-photographed swim in the Mediterranean with the American ambassador to prove the waters - and budding tourist industry - were safe.
The nuclear regulatory agency is expected to prohibit building or selling produce grown inside the contaminated area at its meeting today, according to El País.
"There is no health risk," Teresa Mendiz bal, director of environmental studies for CIEMAT, told El País.
"The dose of radiation is very low, and we are only restricting use of the land where there is americium, but only as a precaution."
El Pais has discovered that the US government will not continue to pay for cleanup efforts or continuing blood tests for the 1,500 people who live in Palomares. The US government pays some 314,000€ a year to the Spanish government to control the effects of the nuclear spill in the village, caused after a long range US bomber equipped with nuclear bombs crashed there in ’66.
At least one bomb split open, spilling radiation across the village.
Locals believe this is why the people of Palomares tend to be large and hirsute, and their vegetables larger than normal.
Latest Earthquakes Worldwide and Earthquake News
M 5.8, eastern Honshu, Japan
Tuesday, April 12, 2011 19:37:49 UTC
Wednesday, April 13, 2011 04:37:49 AM at epicenter
Depth: 44.80 km (27.84 mi)
Real-time, worldwide earthquake list for the past day
Posted on 12 April 2011 | 7:37 pm
Originally posted by Tworide
So far these swarms are not close to any particular volcano,
The Shinmoedake volcano in Japan's Kyushu has erupted two days after the massive earthquake and tsunami that left more than 10,000 people dead, reports said on Sunday. There was no confirmation on whether the eruption was related to Friday's quake. The volcano, which was dormant for several weeks after erupting on January 19, began spewing ash and rock on Sunday, Japan's meteorological agency said.
Sorption of actinides, particularly plutonium, onto submicrometer-sized colloids increases their mobility, but these plutonium colloids are difficult to detect in the far-field. We identified actinides on colloids in the groundwater from the Mayak Production Association, Urals, Russia; at the source, the plutonium activity is ∼1000 becquerels per liter. Plutonium activities are still 0.16 becquerels per liter at a distance of 3 kilometers, where 70 to 90 mole percent of the plutonium is sorbed onto colloids, confirming that colloids are responsible for the long-distance transport of plutonium. Nano–secondary ion mass spectrometry elemental maps reveal that amorphous iron oxide colloids adsorb Pu(IV) hydroxides or carbonates along with uranium carbonates.
Based on the information above, we believe that 13’Cs and 241Am are excellent tracers for =‘Pu and that their transport is closely associated with the behavior of small particles in soils. We have applied this finding to our studies of wind erosion, water erosion and vertical migration.
Our results show that episodic, high-wind events disproportionately increase resuspension. In fact, we found that the mass of resuspended soil during windstorms can be many orders of magnitude greater than that under average
Water erosion is a second major processes that effects contaminant transport, and yet major knowledge gaps exist,particularly site-specific data for semiarid DOE sites. Intense convection thunderstorms often play a major role in generating runoff and erosion in these environments.
Vertical migration is an important potential mechanism for loss of surface actinides that could also lead to groundwater contamination. We are using 134Ctsr acer as an actinide analogue in laboratory studies designed to develop site-specific loss rates for actinide transport models. Vertical migration is being investigated as a function of soil type, water percolation, and wetting / drying cycles that promote macropores (cracks) in soil profiles. Because Pu solubility under normal environmental conditions is known to be extremely low, our hypothesis is that any vertical migration of Pu is likely to result from either the downward transport of soil particles through macropores in the profile, or from the transport of colloidal materials through the soil matrix itself.