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Japan declares 'nuclear emergency' after quake

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posted on Oct, 14 2011 @ 05:03 PM
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Greetings:

Regarding our friends at the EPA and the on-going cover-up; from the wayback machine:

28 March 2011
EPA Monitoring Continues to Confirm That No Radiation Levels of Concern Have Reached the United States

28 March 2011
EPA: Expect More Radiation in Rainwater

Image via Wikipedia

Iodine-131 found in rain in Pennsylvania.



[color=limegreen]The Environmental Protection Agency yesterday reported finding elevated levels of iodine-131, a product of nuclear fission, in rainwater in Pennsylvania and Massachusetts. The levels exceed the maximum contaminant level (MCL) permitted in drinking water, but EPA continues to assure the public there is no need for alarm:
(..)

28 March 2011
Radioactive Iodine-131 in Pennsylvania rainwater sample is 3300% above federal drinking water standard



Governor Corbett Says Public Water Supply Testing Finds No Risk to Public From Radioactivity Found in Rainwater

(...)

'Rainwater is not typically directly consumed,' Corbett said. 'However, people might get alarmed by making what would be an inappropriate connection from rainwater to drinking water.


By testing the drinking water, we can assure people that the water is safe.' …

5 April 2011
Cumulative Low-Level Doses of Radiation Can Cause Big Problems


Japan nuclear radiation has spread around the globe.


When scientists speak of radiation, they speak not only of single doses but also of cumulative doses. [color=limegreen]Japan nuclear radiation has spread around the globe leaving long-lasting cumulative low-level doses of radiation.

See for example, this research from the University of Iowa showing that 'cumulative radon exposure is a significant risk factor for lung cancer in women'.

And see these studies on the health effects cumulative doses of radioactive cesium. (As I noted on March 29th, [color=limegreen]the radioactive cesium fallout from Japan already rivals Chernobyl.

And the amount of radioactive fuel at Fukushima dwarfs Chernobyl).

Admittedly, the damage from huge single doses may be greater than the same cumulative dose from many small exposures. But the smaller doses can still add up.

Many studies have shown that repeated exposures to low levels of ionizing radiation from CT scans and x-rays can cause cancer. See this, this, this, this, this, this, this, this and this.

Remember, the radiation from CT scans and x-rays are external emitters – the radiation emanates from outside the body.

In contrast, internal emitters keep emitting their radiation inside the body.

Therefore, the cumulative effect of multiple small doses of radiation from internal emitters could be even more dramatic, depending on the half life, metabolic pathways and other properties of the particular radioactive particle.


“Karl Morgan, who worked on the Manhattan project, later came out against the nuclear industry when he understood the danger of low levels of ionizing radiation-and he said there is no safe dose of radiation exposure,” Cabasso continued, “That means all this talk about what a worker or the public can withstand on a yearly basis is bogus. There is no safe level of radiation exposure. These so-called safe levels are coming from within the nuclear establishment.[/co”

Read more…
6 April 2011
T rue Horrors Of Japan Nuclear Disaster Revealed In Confidential Leaked Government Document



A leaked confidential NRC document on the Japan nuclear disaster reveals the situation in Fukushima is worse than anyone expected.

Top scientists in the United States and Japan have discovered a “wide array” of “complex problems” warning that [color=limegreen]the Japan nuclear disaster could continue on indefinitely and things could start to get much, much worse at any minute.
(...)


To be continued...

In Peace, Love & Light

tfw




posted on Oct, 14 2011 @ 06:35 PM
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Greetings:

Just catching up on the news...

... and the wayback machine:

31 March 2011
Radioactive Iodine-131 in rainwater sample near San Francisco was 18,100% above federal drinking water standard


Iodine-131 was measured in a rainwater sample taken on the roof of Etcheverry Hall on UC Berkeley campus, March 23, 2011 from 9:06-18:00 PDT. The 3 Liters of rainwater collected contained 134 Becquerels of Iodine for an average of 20.1 Becquerel per liter, which equates to 543 Picocuries per liter.

The federal drinking water limit for Iodine-131 is 3 Picocuries per liter, putting the rainwater sample at 18,100% above the federal drinking water limit.

20.1 Becquerel per liter (Bq/L) = 543 Picocuries per liter (pCi/L)

Conversion calculator here.

The federal drinking water standard for Iodine-131 is 3 pCi/L. source

6 April 2011
True Horrors of Japan Nuclear Disaster Revealed In Confidential Leaked Government Document


(...)
[color=limegreen]]Perhaps the worse news is confirmation that radioactive fragments and particles, including the deadly Plutonium “MOX” fuel, has been shot high into the atmosphere during the hydrogen explosions.
more

3 July 2011
Guardian: Leaked Emails Reveal Government Conspiracy To Downplay Fukushima Nuclear Disaster

Photograph: AP

8 August 2011
Japan Witheld Nuclear Meltdown Simulation Showing 18,000 Deaths And 55 Mile Dead Zone

31 August 2011
Feds Allowing Tritium Radiation Catastrophe Cover Up At
North Anna, VA Nuclear Plant?


There may be a tritium radiation leak at the North Anna nuclear plant following the Virginia Earthquake.

4 April 2011
Cesium-137 Threat Grows While MSM Remains Silent


Cesium-137 has been detected in drinking water and milk here in the United States.

Cesium and Tellurium were found in Boise, Las Vegas, Nome and Dutch Harbor, Honolulu, Kauai and Oahu, Anaheim, Riverside, San Francisco, and San Bernardino,  Jacksonville and Orlando, Salt Lake City,  Guam, and Saipan while Uranium-234, with a half-life of 245,500 years has been found in Hawaii, California, and Washington.

The EPA has radiation monitoring sites situated around the country.
(...)




Radioactive isotopes spread through the atmosphere accumulate in milk after they fall to earth in rain or dust and settle on vegetation, where they are ingested by grazing cattle.

Iodine-131 is known to accumulate in the thyroid gland, where it can cause cancer and other thyroid diseases. Cesium-137 accumulates in the body’s soft tissues and bone marrow where it increases risk of cancer.

The corporate media in the West is downplaying and basically ignoring the threat. On the one hand, the EPA tells us cesium-137 is appearing in milk and water around the country, while on the other telling us not to worry.



The EPA said in March that "while they were above the historical and background norm, the levels weren’t considered harmful to human health."

The agency sounds the alarm about radioactivity in cigarette smoke while minimizing the risk from an out of control nuclear plant that continues to spew radioactivity.

Something is seriously amiss when a supposedly free media and government agencies in the U.S. downplay the threat.

In Peace, Love & Light

tfw



posted on Oct, 14 2011 @ 10:29 PM
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"We may be too late to evacuate"
What a scary thought. Just think what could've been done in 7 months.
fukushima-diary.com...



posted on Oct, 14 2011 @ 11:48 PM
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We have some new footage of the leaky pipe in the No 1 fuel pool. What makes me think it's gushing out 10ft away? Oh yeah....the last leaky pipe they showed us.
www.youtube.com...



posted on Oct, 15 2011 @ 01:29 AM
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Citizens’ Testing Finds 20 Hot Spots Around Tokyo



Takeo Hayashida signed on with a citizens’ group to test for radiation near his son’s baseball field in Tokyo after government officials told him they had no plans to check for fallout from the devastated Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant. Like Japan’s central government, local officials said there was nothing to fear in the capital, 160 miles from the disaster zone.

Then came the test result: the level of radioactive cesium in a patch of dirt just yards from where his 11-year-old son, Koshiro, played baseball was equal to those in some contaminated areas around Chernobyl.

Good and long Read:

Further contamination fears across Japan



Kyodo News reported that a citizens group detected levels as high as 5.82 microsieverts an hour in a park in the town of Funabashi, Chiba prefecture, 200 kilometres from Fukushima. Earlier this week officials in Yokohama, just south of Tokyo, said they found abnormally high levels of strontium-90 in sediment on the roof of an apartment block. The radioactive isotope, which has a half-life of 29 years, can accumulate and cause bone cancer and leukaemia.

The levels recorded in Tokyo are higher than the 2.17 microsieverts an hour currently found in Iitate, 50 kilometres north-west of the plant, from which almost all of the 6000 residents have been evacuated. Read more: www.watoday.com.au...

edit on 15-10-2011 by Human0815 because: more



posted on Oct, 15 2011 @ 02:31 AM
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We were discussing this many, many moons ago. Now it seems it has come up again.
Journalist Accuses Israel of Fukushima Sabotage


A leading Japanese journalist recently made two incredible claims about the Fukushima power plant that suffered a nuclear meltdown in March 2011, sending shockwaves around the world. First, the former editor of a national newspaper in Japan says the U.S. and Israel knew Fukushima had weapons-grade uranium and plutonium that were exposed to the atmosphere after a massive tsunami wave hit the reactor. Second, he contends that Israeli intelligence sabotaged the reactor in retaliation for Japan’s support of an independent Palestinian state.


pictures of the underfloor bottles etc from UK's The Daily Mail


The ministry said the owner of the house, a woman who is reportedly around 90 years old, said she had never seen the bottles before and had no idea why they had been stored under the floor.

She moved out of the property in February.

The levels do not present a health risk.

The bottles were removed from the premises and will be stored by a radioactive isotope disposal agency.

A civil group in Tokyo first discovered the hotspot after measuring radiation levels in the local area.


These bottles were detected by a civil radiation monitoring group from the higher radiation readings in that area. So...either these bottles are not the cause of the higher readings OR they do pose a health risk. The authorities cannot have it both ways.



posted on Oct, 15 2011 @ 08:34 AM
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Radioactive plankton found near Fukushima plant



Researchers say high concentrations of radioactive caesium have been detected in plankton in the Pacific Ocean off the shattered Fukushima nuclear plant.

www.abc.net.au...

Paper shows Japan feared aftershocks at nuke plant



The simulation was based on a scenario that cooling water was lost in the Unit 4 spent fuel storage pool, located on the top floor of the building.

The Unit 4 pool was considered high risk as it contained more fuel than the other three pools, as it also stored fuel rods that had been moved from the unit's reactor core, which was being fitted with new parts.

In the report, the government-funded JNES said a loss of pool water due to additional cracks from aftershocks could cause the fuel rods to overheat. Their casings could break and start spewing radiation in about 2 hours. Fuel pellets inside each rod could start melting within 7.7 hours at about 2,800 Celsius (5,000 Fahrenheit), it said.

www.google.com...

TEPCO completes cover around Fukushima plant's No. 1 reactor; 3 and 4 next



Construction of the cover -- composed of 62 polyester fibre sections -- began in August to reduce the amount of radioactive materials escaping into the outside environment.

With the cover now finished, TEPCO will install air scrubbers inside the reactor building to clear out airborne radioactive substances. Once the scrubbers are in place, they are expected to process all the air in the enclosure -- a volume of about 40,000 cubic meters -- every hour, reducing airborne radioactive materials by 90 percent.

The new cover will last for two years. TEPCO is also considering replacing the cover with a stronger one should the firm decide to remove the fuel from the reactor. TEPCO plans to build similar covers over the No. 3 and 4 reactor buildings, which were also destroyed by hydrogen explosions in March.

mdn.mainichi.jp...

The Israeli Connection!


Since the first Weeks after the 03/11 Catastrophe i read "Conspiracy, Israel done it, Blabla"
I doubt that there was a / some Bombs playing a Role.

The Israeli and their Government
and even the Mossad have no interest to poison the whole World
and i am always ashamed that so many People in Conspiracy Pages
like this one have a latent Anti-Semitic Tendency,
we saw in 1920-1945 (Conspiracy Topics was very fashionable after WW1)
where this Road lead too! (To the Ramp of Auschwitz- Birkenau)

Japan hold a lot of nuclear Material in their Plants,
more than good as well as more than allowed,
this is the major Crime at this Moment
and we will be ill advised to search for something unconfirmed!
edit on 15-10-2011 by Human0815 because: spell



posted on Oct, 15 2011 @ 12:31 PM
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Originally posted by qmantoo

First, the former editor of a national newspaper in Japan says the U.S. and Israel knew Fukushima had weapons-grade uranium and plutonium that were exposed to the atmosphere after a massive tsunami wave hit the reactor.


Interesting. If true it would pretty much confirm the existence of the UC and a weapons factory. Would love to learn how this editor knew this. It sounds a bit too James Bondy for me, but if Israel did know that there was a illegal weapons plant under Fukushima Daiichi, and Japan was supporting the Palestinian movement, I guess its possible. I doubt it though. The UC and weapons grade material, yes, but Israel bombing Fukushima, no.


The ministry said the owner of the house, a woman who is reportedly around 90 years old, said she had never seen the bottles before and had no idea why they had been stored under the floor.

She moved out of the property in February.

The more I read about this affair, the fishier it becomes. And if the govt doesnt test the radiation on the sidewalk to see what is being emitted, than for sure this is a plant. Even if they test and come back and say its radium, its still probably a plant.

If this was orchestrated, that would mean a wide and all encompassing conspiracy at both the local and national level to conceal contamination. This is evident from past actions of these govt officials as well. From everythings fine to terrorists are transporting radioactive material and spreading it around, its all BS.
edit on 15-10-2011 by zworld because: (no reason given)



posted on Oct, 15 2011 @ 12:53 PM
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Some new heat signitures from Tepco for the gang to look over.
www.tepco.co.jp...



posted on Oct, 15 2011 @ 01:35 PM
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I noticed they only show us the corner of the #3 pool here. Looks like that's where all the bright colours are.


And #1 looks like a trench in the bottom......Nothing for #2 and #4.



posted on Oct, 15 2011 @ 02:45 PM
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Extra school texts on radiation fail to detail nuke accident/ lol, Rofl



Japan's education ministry today unveiled supplementary school text books on radiation compliance in the wake of the nuclear crisis at the Fukushima Daiichi power plant.

The three text books are for elementary schools and junior and senior high schools respectively and describe the basic nature of radiation and day-to-day radiation exposure. But critics say they fail to refer closely to the disaster at the Fukushima complex and the health risks caused. For example, the materials for elementary school children touch on health risks only by noting,

"It has not been clearly proved that exposure to radiation of less than 100 millisieverts at one time causes cancer and other diseases by itself, but it is important to minimise the exposure as much as possible." Masako Sawai, researcher at the Citizens' Nuclear Information Center, said the supplementary materials "should have clearly noted how the (radioactive) contamination has spread following the nuclear disaster and how it will affect our future."

Source:

Sales of nuclear protector coats for dogs soar in Japan/
this is sooooooooo typical Japanese



DOG coats that repel nuclear radiation are in high demand in Japan as the nation seeks to protect its pets in the aftermath of the country's nuclear disaster. They come in a range of styles and colours, they repel water and radiation -- and anxious Japanese are buying them as fast as they can be manufactured. Read more: www.news.com.au...



posted on Oct, 15 2011 @ 04:48 PM
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reply to post by Aircooled
 


I noticed the same thing. first thing that came to my mind was "OK Tepco, what are you hiding this time?" Ill bet the originals arent cropped. Ill try and find em.

But this also means that they have probably been doing this type of thermal photo for sometime. What a treasure trove that file is.



posted on Oct, 15 2011 @ 04:51 PM
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Some interesting stuff coming from Phebus, the fission research project.

First, after meltdown, they didn't find the compounds that simulations showed they would find, or didnt find them in the levels expected. What they did find was;
a) alot of interaction between silver, coming from the melted control rods, and iodine, forming AgI,
b) a significant fraction of iodine was in volatile form.
c) instead of cesium hydroxide they found cesium in an unidentifiable form. The best candidate was Cs2MoO4, whatever that is.
and d) the noble gases (Xe etc) and high volatile fission products (Cs and I) were almost completely released.

They also found that pre-calculations under-predicted the amount of hydrogen produced during the fuel rod cladding oxidation runaway, some of them by nearly a factor 2.

But the really interesting thing is this;




Another important observation made in test FPT-1 is that some of the cesium deposited along the hot leg wall during the experiment revaporised at the end of the test, though the deposits were not over-heated. This phenomenon, probably linked to chemical reactions, is still under investigation.


Cesium can revaporize. This finding alone makes studying Fukushima's after effects incredibly important. Is the cesium there also revaporizing. Think of all the brown cesium that sprayed out at the base of the stack revaporizing and entering the atmosphere to end up who knows where.

So many questions have come out of these experiments that are not what they expected. And now with Fukushima they have a chance to find out once and for all what is released from a severe meltdown. But they don't want to because they dont care. They only do research for the money and the appearance of being concerned and seeking knowledge to protect us..

ON EDIT: Silverlok, silver iodide (AgI) is a crystaline structure. Would this change the equation concerning whether or not there could be a boatload of wigner energy being stored in the corium ready to go off if this is part of the melt. Do we know if silver was in the Fuku control rods or is silver always used in control rods.
edit on 15-10-2011 by zworld because: (no reason given)



posted on Oct, 15 2011 @ 05:12 PM
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from EX SKF




Strontium in Yokohama: Citizen Threatened for Breaking the News

He took down his blog overnight which had a ton of useful visual information regarding radiation contamination, and restricted access to tweets after he and his family were anonymously "threatened" after the disclosure of strontium discovery in Yokohama City.

He says, "The whole purpose of my studying the radiation and radiation contamination and sharing information has been to protect my family, especially our young daughter. There is no point in doing so if my family's safety is threatened because of it. Please understand."

Yes, it's so "yesterday's news", isn't it, when a citizen is threatened for breaking the news that part of his city has been heavily contaminated by the radioactive fallout from Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant? Time to move on. If you don't see, don't say, don't hear anything, it doesn't exist.



posted on Oct, 15 2011 @ 06:54 PM
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Hold on to your horses, the MSM is starting to talk about Fukushima again. You know, like all of sudden there are more problems. Oh well, at least some will realize we arent crazy. (We arent are we?)

from ENENEWS and NYT, some of the quotes. the actual article has alot of good stuff.


Tokyo radiation measurements “raise major and unprecedented concerns about the aftermath of the Fukushima nuclear disaster.” -Robert Alvarez, a nuclear expert and a former special assistant to the United State Secretary of Energy

“Radioactive substances are entering people’s bodies from the air, from the food. It’s everywhere. But the government doesn’t even try to inform the public how much radiation they’re exposed to.” -Kiyoshi Toda, a radiation expert at Nagasaki University’s faculty of environmental studies and a medical doctor

“Everybody just wants to believe that this is Fukushima’s problem. But if the government is not serious about finding out, how can we trust them?” -Kota Kino#a, one of the citizen groups’ leaders and a former television journalist



posted on Oct, 15 2011 @ 08:10 PM
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Oct 15th some new [Very little] footage of the site during the emergency drill. There seems to be a lot of steel plates on the ground below #1 to cut the radiation down.


And the link.
www.youtube.com...



posted on Oct, 15 2011 @ 08:12 PM
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Greetings:

This seems a bit cheeky to us:

28 June 2011
Return Our Dogs, TEPCO Demands


A man who snatched two dogs to safety from the grounds of the crippled Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant has revealed the plant's disgraced operator TEPCO later rang him to assert ownership over them.

The Australian yesterday revealed the story of animal rescue "guerilla" Hiroshi Hoshi's mission to the plant to grab two Japanese Shiba dogs spotted wandering around on a webcam trained on the facility.


Japanese Shiba Dogs


Yesterday, Mr Hoshi said one of the plant's managers, who called himself Mr Igarashi, made a "ghoulish and bizarre" phone call to him soon after he rescued the dogs, suggesting they had become company property.

"He sounded that those dogs actually belong to TEPCO, because they were found at privately owned area of the plant," Mr Hoshi told The Australian.

"We will never give them away -- we are the guardians of those two dogs."

The dogs, thought to be sisters, were first seen at the plant earlier this month, three months after the nuclear accident, and were found to have absorbed significant amounts of radiation.

Nevertheless, they have been given a clean bill of health and were given to a couple in Yokohama.


Good for him/them!


In Peace, Love & Light

tfw



posted on Oct, 15 2011 @ 09:50 PM
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A leaked report says Japanese media new within 100 hrs of the quake that fuk had released 120 Billion Becquerels of Plutonium 238, 239, 240, and 241. Also 7,600 Billion Becquerels of NP-239
fukushima-diary.com... &utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+FukushimaDiary+%28Fukushima+Diary%29
Also splashed water/steam at the south east corner of #1 at 4.7 Sv/h
fukushima-diary.com...
South-east corner. Remember the 10 Sv/h pipe at the south-west corner of #1?



posted on Oct, 15 2011 @ 10:51 PM
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I imagine that 'wigner' energies are the (secondary non mechanical) transit ( temp) mechanisms for the high atmosphere transport devices , the same as water vapor being ten times less dense than normal (sea level ) earth air , as for explosion, NO, the whole wigner thing is a physics conceptualization...like super heating (or supercooling) , based on a number matrix not a reality, chemistry and physics are really only one science


Originally posted by zworld
Some interesting stuff coming from Phebus, the fission research project.

First, after meltdown, they didn't find the compounds that simulations showed they would find, or didnt find them in the levels expected. What they did find was;
a) alot of interaction between silver, coming from the melted control rods, and iodine, forming AgI,
b) a significant fraction of iodine was in volatile form.
c) instead of cesium hydroxide they found cesium in an unidentifiable form. The best candidate was Cs2MoO4, whatever that is.
and d) the noble gases (Xe etc) and high volatile fission products (Cs and I) were almost completely released.

They also found that pre-calculations under-predicted the amount of hydrogen produced during the fuel rod cladding oxidation runaway, some of them by nearly a factor 2.

But the really interesting thing is this;




Another important observation made in test FPT-1 is that some of the cesium deposited along the hot leg wall during the experiment revaporised at the end of the test, though the deposits were not over-heated. This phenomenon, probably linked to chemical reactions, is still under investigation.


Cesium can revaporize. This finding alone makes studying Fukushima's after effects incredibly important. Is the cesium there also revaporizing. Think of all the brown cesium that sprayed out at the base of the stack revaporizing and entering the atmosphere to end up who knows where.

So many questions have come out of these experiments that are not what they expected. And now with Fukushima they have a chance to find out once and for all what is released from a severe meltdown. But they don't want to because they dont care. They only do research for the money and the appearance of being concerned and seeking knowledge to protect us..

ON EDIT: Silverlok, silver iodide (AgI) is a crystaline structure. Would this change the equation concerning whether or not there could be a boatload of wigner energy being stored in the corium ready to go off if this is part of the melt. Do we know if silver was in the Fuku control rods or is silver always used in control rods.
edit on 15-10-2011 by zworld because: (no reason given)

edit on 15-10-2011 by Silverlok because: oy the detail

edit on 15-10-2011 by Silverlok because: life is not a dream , I think



posted on Oct, 15 2011 @ 11:36 PM
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Fundamentals of Melt-Water Interfacial Transport Phenomena: Improved Understanding for Innovative Safety Technologies in ALWRs


The goal of this work is to provide the fundamental understanding needed for melt-water interfacial transport phenomena, thus enabling the development of innovative safety technologies for advanced LWRs that will assure ex-vessel core coolability.


Things that make you go hmmm.

And found elsewhere at the same site:


The first issue concerns the effectiveness of water in terminating a CCI by flooding the interacting masses from above, thereby quenching the molten core debris and rendering it permanently coolable. This safety issue was investigated in the EPRI-sponsored Melt Attack and Coolability Experiments (MACE) program. The approach was to conduct large scale, integral-type reactor materials experiments with core melt masses ranging up to two metric tons.


They build a small test reactor and study the Corium Concrete Interactions (CCI) in a live fire kind of way:



I think this was discussed some time back:


Finally, the tests carried out as part of this program have examined core-concrete interaction and debris coolability for the case of fully oxidized core melts. In real plant accident sequences, a significant melt metal fraction may be present that may result in a stratified pool configuration.


This bears directly on Fukushima Daiichi:


All tests showed the overall trend of decreasing melt temperature as ablation progressed, which was due to a heat sink effect as relatively cool concrete slag was introduced into the melt, as well as the increasing heat transfer surface area as the melts expanded into the concrete crucibles. The reduction in melt temperature may have further reflected the evolution of the pool boundary freezing temperature that decreased as additional concrete was eroded into the melt over the course of the tests.


It would seem that the composition of the concrete has a great deal to do with the way the melt would progress:


Tests CCI-1 and CCI-2 showed evidence of initial crust formation on the concrete basemat and sidewalls that resulted in an incubation period in which the ablation rates were very low and the melt temperature was relatively stable. Test CCI-3 also showed evidence of initial crust formation on the concrete basemat, but there was no evidence of initial sidewall crust formation for this test. In all cases, the surface crusts eventually failed, thereby allowing ablation to proceed


Some more technical details on why there are differences in the progress of the melt:


Between the two concrete types, possible explanations for differences in the erosion behavior are chemical composition and concrete gas content. A third possible explanation was revealed during posttest examinations. In particular, the core-concrete interface for the siliceous concrete tests consisted of a region where the core oxide had locally displaced the cement that bonded the aggregate



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