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“The last completely ‘normal’ year in history was 1913, the year before World War I began.”—Editorial in the Times-Herald, Washington, D.C
Felix Hoffmann, working at the Aktiengesellschaft Farbenfabriken (today the Bayer pharmaceutical company) in Elberfeld, Germany, was instructed by his supervisor Heinrich Dreser to acetylate morphine with the objective of producing codeine, a constituent of the opium poppy, pharmacologically similar to morphine but less potent and less addictive. Instead the experiment produced an acetylated form of morphine one and a half to two times more potent than morphine itself.
From 1898 through to 1910 diacetylmorphine was marketed under the trade name Heroin as a non-addictive morphine substitute and cough suppressant. Bayer marketed the drug as a cure for morphine addiction before it was discovered that it rapidly metabolizes into morphine. As such, heroin is essentially a quicker acting form of morphine. The company was embarrassed by the new finding, which became a historic blunder for Bayer. - Wiki
In 1885 the U.S. manufacturer Parke-Davis sold coc aine in various forms, including cigarettes, powder, and even a coc aine mixture that could be injected directly into the user’s veins with the included needle. The company promised that its coc aine products would “supply the place of food, make the coward brave, the silent eloquent and ... render the sufferer insensitive to pain.”
By the late Victorian era coc aine use had appeared as a vice in literature. For example, it was injected by Arthur Conan Doyle’s fictional Sherlock Holmes.
In early 20th-century Memphis, Tennessee, coc aine was sold in neighborhood drugstores on Beale Street, costing five or ten cents for a small boxful. Stevedores along the Mississippi River used the drug as a stimulant, and white employers encouraged its use by black laborers. - Wiki
A cut-rate store, the Economical Drug Company of Chicago, started upon a campaign and displayed a sign in the window reading:
This was followed up by the salesmen informing all applicants for the prominent nostrums that they were wasting money.
Originally posted by Asktheanimals
That is something I blame on the banks and the industrialists because wars are very profitable for them both. Nothing has changed significantly since as far as I know.
Originally posted by WHOS READY
reply to post by LiveForever8
how many times have we been through this cycle of life? there's evidence that humans have been on earth 500,000,000+ years!
New study: 85% of Big Pharma’s new drugs are “lemons” and pose health risks to users
According to Donald Light, Ph.D., a professor of comparative health policy at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey who authored the study, the pharmaceutical industry is a “market for lemons” and Big Pharma spends a fortune to sell those lemons to the public.
According to the new study, the big drug companies are successful in getting away with selling their “lemon” drugs because of three main reasons: Big Pharma is in charge of testing their own new drugs; the pharmaceutical companies have invested millions in building “firewalls” of legal protection to hide information about a drug’s dangers or lack of effectiveness; and the bar for drug efficacy is set fairly low to make it easier for Big Pharma to get a new drug approved. - Source
- Editorial Review from The New England Journal of Medicine.
This book is a salutary complement to the flood of alarmist diatribes about the need for a revitalized "war on drugs" to save the nation from decay and to the well-meaning but tired pleas for greater personal freedom and expression. There are no shrill polemics here and no pretentious proposals for tougher laws or less stringent policies. What the reader will find are interesting snapshots of an erratic historical trajectory that shows how the social context matters more than biochemistry or pharmacology when it comes to shaping how people feel, not only about drugs and those who use them, but even about what it is that we call "drugs" and why.