History Secret Experiments Conducted on U.S. Citizens

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posted on Jun, 18 2004 @ 10:44 AM
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HISTORY OF SECRET EXPERIMENTATION ON UNITED STATES CITIZENS 1931 Dr. Cornelius Rhoads, under the auspices of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Investigations, infects human subjects with cancer cells. He later goes on to establish the U.S. Army Biological Warfare facilities in Maryland, Utah, and Panama, and is named to the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. While there, he begins a series of radiation exposure experiments on American soldiers and civilian hospital patients. 1932 The Tuskegee Syphilis Study begins. 200 black men diagnosed with syphilis are never told of their illness, are denied treatment, and instead are used as human guinea pigs in order to follow the progression and symptoms of the disease. They all subsequently die from syphilis, their families never told that they could have been treated. 1935 The Pellagra Incident. After millions of individuals die from Pellagra over a span of two decades, the U.S. Public Health Service finally acts to stem the disease. The director of the agency admits it had known for at least 20 years that Pellagra is caused by a niacin deficiency but failed to act since most of the deaths occured within poverty-striken black populations. 1940 Four hundred prisoners in Chicago are infected with Malaria in order to study the effects of new and experimental drugs to combat the disease. Nazi doctors later on trial at Nuremberg cite this American study to defend their own actions during the Holocaust. 1942 Chemical Warfare Services begins mustard gas experiments on approximately 4,000 servicemen. The experiments continue until 1945 and made use of Seventh Day Adventists who chose to become human guinea pigs rather than serve on active duty. 1943 In response to Japan's full-scale germ warfare program, the U.S. begins research on biological weapons at Fort Detrick, MD. 1944 U.S. Navy uses human subjects to test gas masks and clothing. Individuals were locked in a gas chamber and exposed to mustard gas and lewisite. 1945 Project Paperclip is initiated. The U.S. State Department, Army intelligence, and the CIA recruit Nazi scientists and offer them immunity and secret identities in exchange for work on top secret government projects in the United States. 1945 "Program F" is implemented by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). This is the most extensive U.S. study of the health effects of fluoride, which was the key chemical component in atomic bomb production. One of the most toxic chemicals known to man, fluoride, it is found, causes marked adverse effects to the central nervous system but much of the information is squelched in the name of national security because of fear that lawsuits would undermine full-scale production of atomic bombs. 1946 Patients in VA hospitals are used as guinea pigs for medical experiments. In order to allay suspicions, the order is given to change the word "experiments" to "investigations" or "observations" whenever reporting a medical study performed in one of the nation's veteran's hospitals. 1947 Colonel E.E. Kirkpatrick of the U.S. Atomic Energy Comission issues a secret document (Document 07075001, January 8, 1947) stating that the agency will begin administering intravenous doses of radioactive substances to human subjects. 1947 The CIA begins its study of LSD as a potential weapon for use by American intelligence. Human subjects (both civilian and military) are used with and without their knowledge. 1950 Department of Defense begins plans to detonate nuclear weapons in desert areas and monitor downwind residents for medical problems and mortality rates. 1950 In an experiment to determine how susceptible an American city would be to biological attack, the U.S. Navy sprays a cloud of bacteria from ships over San Franciso. Monitoring devices are situated throughout the city in order to test the extent of infection. Many residents become ill with pneumonia-like symptoms. 1951 Department of Defense begins open air tests using disease-producing bacteria and viruses. Tests last through 1969 and there is concern that people in the surrounding areas have been exposed. 1953 U.S. military releases clouds of zinc cadmium sulfide gas over Winnipeg, St. Louis, Minneapolis, Fort Wayne, the Monocacy River Valley in Maryland, and Leesburg, Virginia. Their intent is to determine how efficiently they could disperse chemical agents. 1953 Joint Army-Navy-CIA experiments are conducted in which tens of thousands of people in New York and San Francisco are exposed to the airborne germs Serratia marcescens and Bacillus glogigii. 1953 CIA initiates Project MKULTRA. This is an eleven year research program designed to produce and test drugs and biological agents that would be used for mind control and behavior modification. Six of the subprojects involved testing the agents on unwitting human beings. 1955 The CIA, in an experiment to test its ability to infect human populations with biological agents, releases a bacteria withdrawn from the Army's biological warfare arsenal over Tampa Bay, Fl. 1955 Army Chemical Corps continues LSD research, studying its potential use as a chemical incapacitating agent. More than 1,000 Americans participate in the tests, which continue until 1958. 1956 U.S. military releases mosquitoes infected with Yellow Fever over Savannah, Ga and Avon Park, Fl. Following each test, Army agents posing as public health officials test victims for effects. 1958 LSD is tested on 95 volunteers at the Army's Chemical Warfare Laboratories for its effect on intelligence. 1960 The Army Assistant Chief-of-Staff for Intelligence (ACSI) authorizes field testing of LSD in Europe and the Far East. Testing of the european population is code named Project THIRD CHANCE; testing of the Asian population is code named Project DERBY HAT. 1965 CIA and Department of Defense begin Project MKSEARCH, a program to develop a capability to manipulate human behavior through the use of mind-altering drugs. 1965 Prisoners at the Holmesburg State Prison in Philadelphia are subjected to dioxin, the highly toxic chemical component of Agent Orange used in Viet Nam. The men are later studied for development of cancer, which indicates that Agent Orange had been a suspected carcinogen all along. 1966 CIA initiates Project MKOFTEN, a program to test the toxicological effects of certain drugs on humans and animals. 1966 U.S. Army dispenses Bacillus subtilis variant niger throughout the New York City subway system. More than a million civilians are exposed when army scientists drop lightbulbs filled with the bacteria onto ventilation grates. 1967 CIA and Department of Defense implement Project MKNAOMI, successor to MKULTRA and designed to maintain, stockpile and test biological and chemical weapons. 1968 CIA experiments with the possibility of poisoning drinking water by injecting chemicals into the water supply of the FDA in Washington, D.C. 1969 Dr. Robert MacMahan of the Department of Defense requests from congress $10 million to develop, within 5 to 10 years, a synthetic biological agent to which no natural immunity exists. 1970 Funding for the synthetic biological agent is obtained under H.R. 15090. The project, under the supervision of the CIA, is carried out by the Special Operations Division at Fort Detrick, the army's top secret biological weapons facility. Speculation is raised that molecular biology techniques are used to produce AIDS-like retroviruses. 1970 United States intensifies its development of "ethnic weapons" (Military Review, Nov., 1970), designed to selectively target and eliminate specific ethnic groups who are susceptible due to genetic differences and variations in DNA. 1975 The virus section of Fort Detrick's Center for Biological Warfare Research is renamed the Fredrick Cancer Research Facilities and placed under the supervision of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) . It is here that a special virus cancer program is initiated by the U.S. Navy, purportedly to develop cancer-causing viruses. It is also here that retrovirologists isolate a virus to which no immunity exists. It is later named HTLV (Human T-cell Leukemia Virus). 1977 Senate hearings on Health and Scientific Research confirm that 239 populated areas had been contaminated with biological agents between 1949 and 1969. Some of the areas included San Francisco, Washington, D.C., Key West, Panama City, Minneapolis, and St. Louis. 1978 Experimental Hepatitis B vaccine trials, conducted by the CDC, begin in New York, Los Angeles and San Francisco. Ads for research subjects specifically ask for promiscuous homosexual men. 1981 First cases of AIDS are confirmed in homosexual men in New York, Los Angeles and San Francisco, triggering speculation that AIDS may have been introduced via the Hepatitis B vaccine. 1985 According to the journal Science (227:173-177), HTLV and VISNA, a fatal sheep virus, are very similar, indicating a close taxonomic and evolutionary relationship. 1986 According to the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (83:4007-4011), HIV and VISNA are highly similar and share all structural elements, except for a small segment which is nearly identical to HTLV. This leads to speculation that HTLV and VISNA may have been linked to produce a new retrovirus to which no natural immunity exists. 1986 A report to Congress reveals that the U.S. Government's current generation of biological agents includes: modified viruses, naturally occurring toxins, and agents that are altered through genetic engineering to change immunological character and prevent treatment by all existing vaccines. 1987 Department of Defense admits that, despite a treaty banning research and development of biological agents, it continues to operate research facilities at 127 facilities and universities around the nation. 1990 More than 1500 six-month old black and hispanic babies in Los Angeles are given an "experimental" measles vaccine that had never been licensed for use in the United States. CDC later admits that parents were never informed that the vaccine being injected to their children was experimental. 1994 With a technique called "gene tracking," Dr. Garth Nicolson at the MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, TX discovers that many returning Desert Storm veterans are infected with an altered strain of Mycoplasma incognitus, a microbe commonly used in the production of biological weapons. Incorporated into its molecular structure is 40 percent of the HIV protein coat, indicating that it had been man-made. 1994 Senator John D. Rockefeller issues a report revealing that for at least 50 years the Department of Defense has used hundreds of thousands of military personnel in human experiments and for intentional exposure to dangerous substances. Materials included mustard and nerve gas, ionizing radiation, psychochemicals, hallucinogens, and drugs used during the Gulf War. 1995 U.S. Government admits that it had offered Japanese war criminals and scientists who had performed human medical experiments salaries and immunity from prosecution in exchange for data on biological warfare research. 1995 Dr. Garth Nicolson, uncovers evidence that the biological agents used during the Gulf War had been manufactured in Houston, TX and Boca Raton, Fl and tested on prisoners in the Texas Department of Corrections. 1996 Department of Defense admits that Desert Storm soldiers were exposed to chemical agents. 1997 Eighty-eight members of Congress sign a letter demanding an investigation into bioweapons use & Gulf War Syndrome. © 1998-2000 Health News




posted on Jun, 18 2004 @ 11:06 AM
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Here's a series of US Biological Warfare experiments that are not on your list. They were conducted near Oceanside, California during 1963. These experiments were carried out by the Deseret Test Center. The experiments were done to investigate the diffusion of a large BW cloud as it travelled onshore and inland.

The scenario for the production of such a massive BW aerosol cloud, was that it would be disseminated in a clandestine manner by a Soviet submarine operating very close to the US, but still just in International Waters. (3 miles from the US Coast).

The title of the report that details the experiments is;
Shoreline Diffusion Program. Oceanside, California. Vol 1
T.B.Smith, B L Niemann Deseret Test Center.


zero lift


edited zero lift

[edit on 18-6-2004 by zero lift]



posted on Jun, 18 2004 @ 12:44 PM
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Another large series of US CBW Experiments missing from the list is the notorious Project 112/SHAD experiments.

During the 1960s, the US Army operated a Chemical and Biological Warfare program called Project 112/Project SHAD. The experiments were carried out on land and at sea. Some of the experiments were carried out in foreign countries.
The experiments often involved the use of real CW agents, such as RAPID TAN which involved the release of VX nerve agent in the UK. Other trials took place in Canada, Hawaii, and Panama. Various biological simulants were used, such as live bacteria such as E.coli (supplied by the UK CBW Centre, Porton Down), Bacillus globigii (also known as Bacillus subtilis, a cause of food poisoning), and a toxic chemical Zinc Cadmium Sulfide (aka FP).
see ATS thread

www.abovetopsecret.com...

Also, the General Accounting Office has released a report that states that the DOD is to publish an audit of every Chemical and Biological Experiment conducted since 1945.

see ATS thread

www.abovetopsecret.com...


zero lift


[edit on 6-7-2004 by zero lift]



posted on Jun, 20 2004 @ 06:04 PM
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AboveTopSecret.com wrote


1950 In an experiment to determine how susceptible an American city would be to biological attack, the U.S. Navy sprays a cloud of bacteria from ships over San Franciso. Monitoring devices are situated throughout the city in order to test the extent of infection. Many residents become ill with pneumonia-like symptoms.


Should anyone wish to obtain a copy of the scientific report of these Biological Warfare experiments, the report title is;

US Army Chemical Corps Biological Laboratories, Camp Detrick, Frederick MD
Biological Warfare Trials at San Francisco, California: Special Report 142, January 1951 (Classified CONFIDENTIAL)

During 1950, six mock attacks were made on San Francisco by US Navy ships disseminating massive quantities of live bacteria. The bacteria used were; Serratia marcescens and Bacillus globigii (aka Baciilus subtilis), according to the UK Health Protection Agency this bacteria is a cause of food poisoning.

www.hpa.org.uk...

Along with these live bacteria, the US Navy also sprayed large amounts of a toxic chemical, Zinc Cadmium sulfide.

The Serratia marcescens sprayed by the US Navy ships was a strain developed during WW2 by the UK Porton Biology Department. It was known as strain 8UK. At the same time as these trials were being conducted, the UK Microbiological Research Department Porton Down, was conducting BW sabotage trials in an underground quarry in Wiltshire UK. The bacteria they were using was also Serratia marcescens, which the Porton scientist in charge described as a "so-called non-pathogen" (The Westwood Trials. MRD Report No 2). So even in 1950 there were doubts that Serratia marcescens might be a pathogen. Serratia marcescens is now known as an opportunistic pathogen.

For more information on these trials read this article.


SAN FRANCISCO Fifty-one years ago, Edward J. Nevin checked into a San Francisco hospital, complaining of chills, fever and general malaise. Three weeks later, the 75-year-old retired pipe fitter was dead, the victim of what doctors said was an infection of the bacterium Serratia marcescens.

Decades later, Mr. Nevins family learned what they believe was the cause of the infection, linked at the time to the hospitalizations of 10 other patients. In Senate subcommittee hearings in 1977, the U.S. Army revealed that weeks before Mr. Nevin sickened and died, the Army had staged a mock biological attack on San Francisco, secretly spraying the city with Serratia and other agents thought to be harmless.

The goal: to see what might happen in a real germ-warfare attack. The experiment, which involved blasting a bacterial fog over the entire 49-square-mile city from a Navy vessel offshore, was recorded with clinical nonchalance: "It was noted that a successful BW [biological warfare] attack on this area can be launched from the sea, and that effective dosages can be produced over relatively large areas," the Army wrote in its 1951 classified report on the experiment.

Full article

www.apfn.org...


zero lift



posted on Aug, 29 2004 @ 08:52 PM
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Hello, I am Posting on behalf of the Gulf War Syndrome research project, any information on the 88 members of congress that passed the bill in 97 on investigating the GWS would be greatly appreciated.



posted on May, 12 2008 @ 12:07 AM
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Massive. Also great source to show debunkers what their government is capable of. Now can anyone say "Chemtrails"?

watchZEITGEISTnow



posted on May, 12 2008 @ 08:26 AM
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If you live in the UK, the little known current Government policy - re the spraying of bacteria or chemical compounds over populated areas - gives even more cause for concern.







In 1999, a reply (see above) to a Code of Practice on Access To Government Information request (the forerunner of the UK FOI Act) stated:

"You also requested information about current procedures governing open air trials in public places. In the event of a military question arising which could only be answered by conducting open air trials in areas which may involve the general public, [Government] Ministers have made it clear that they cannot rule out the need to conduct larger scale trials in the future to try to ensure the protection of the UK from attacks by peoples of states using biological or chemical weapons."

DERA (the Defence Evaluation Research Agency) were at the time repsponsible for the MOD's Chemical and Biological Warfare research facility at Porton Down, and were then trying to play down the extent of Porton Down's past extensive public area spraying programme.

In June 2006, Dstl Porton Down confirmed that the 1999 statement was still official UK Government policy.



zero lift



posted on May, 13 2008 @ 03:27 AM
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So after reading that letter a few more times, the general public are guinea pigs to these 'open trials' I would assume forever. And people won't know when or where these 'future trials' will be done. It appears we are caught in the middle of a battle.

I'm kinda getting sick and tired of fear-mongering but this is truly disturbing.



posted on May, 13 2008 @ 06:08 AM
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There was also Project Bluebird later changed to Project Artichoke that preceded Project MK-ULTRA.

Some of these tests were done through Yale and Harvard Universities and I believe Cornell University. Plus, many hospitals which included Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston.

From what I have read on various websites, it isn't just the U.S., but also the UK, Sweden, New Zealand plus others that I cannot recall at the moment.

Now, we will have to worry about RFID and implant chips in our wrists although that is just for our medical records........sure it is!!!

The Church Committee in 1997 or 1998 was suppose to hold the CIA responsible by making amends to the victims by notifying them etc. Once the Committee adjourned......it just faded away.

I have actually written to the FBI at least three times to ask why nothing has ever been done -- no response. I wrote to NOW to CCR and other websites -- no response.



posted on May, 13 2008 @ 08:42 AM
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Originally posted by pikypiky
So after reading that letter a few more times, the general public are guinea pigs to these 'open trials' I would assume forever. And people won't know when or where these 'future trials' will be done. It appears we are caught in the middle of a battle.

I'm kinda getting sick and tired of fear-mongering but this is truly disturbing.



Dstl Porton Down and the MOD always make the assertion that the general public are not the target for their Open Air Biological Warfare experiments - they just happen to live in the parts of the UK which Porton Down have decided to use as a giant outdoor laboratory.


This means, as the public are not the target, Dstl Porton Down can ignore the Nuremburg Code and quite legitimately spray vast areas of the UK, without the need to first obtain informed consent from those living in the target area.

How big is a target area?

Well lets have a look at some of Porton Down's past public area 'Open Air' BW experiments field trials areas.






This map (see above) was declassified by the MOD three weeks ago, and shows the area of the UK in which the 1957-1963 Large Area Coverage BW Experiments were conducted. The trials procedure was for an aircraft to fly a 200-250 mile track along whichever part of the off-shore circuit shown in the map was relevant, all the time spraying the Biological Warfare simulant - Zinc Cadmium sulphide (aka Fluorescent Particles or FP). These particles, which were of a size (between 1-5 microns) which were designed to evade the body's natural defences and reach the deepest part of the lungs - the alvioli, were carried onshore by the wind and were sampled up to 200 miles away.






On occasion, Porton Down needed to conduct BW experiments on cities - for instance in 1963 and 1964, they conducted Open Air BW 'attacks' over the eastern county of Norfolk - with Norwich as the target city (see above map). As with the previous Large Area Coverage experiments, the Norfolk 'attacks' used the BW simulant Zinc Cadmium sulphide (a BW simulant is a supposedly harmless substance which mimics the physical properties of a real BW agent without causing disease).

Evidence has come to light over the past decades that these simulants are not harmless to all individuals. In fact some simulants, such as Zinc Cadmium sulphide, were known to be potentially hazardous - even while they were being sprayed over populated areas. Evidence for this can be found in declassified Porton Down documents, which reveal that Porton spray operators were ordered to wear personal protective kit, such as surgeons caps, surgeons gloves, overalls, boots, and respirators when conducting Open Air BW experiments in public areas!


From 1963-1975, Porton Down needed a slightly smaller, more suitable Open Air trials area in which to spray huge quantities of live bacteria - and their eye turned towards Southern England and Lyme Bay!




During this series of BW experiments - known as the Lyme Bay Trials - a ship would sail a straightline track across Lyme Bay or Weymouth Bay, all the time spraying what Porton describe as 'a massive crosswind line release' of two types of live bacteria: E.coli MRE162 (isolated from a Porton toilet seat in 1949) and Bacillus subtilis (aka Bacillus globigii or BG). This massive bacterial cloud was carried onshore by the wind and sampled up to 50 miles inland by mobile teams of Porton scientists. Obviously, the aerosol clouds were carried much further than 50 miles, but that distance limit was imposed by Porton for budgetary reasons.


As you can see, in the past nowhere in England and Wales was ever considered to be out-of-bounds for conducting 'Open Air Public Area' Biological Warfare experiments.

Unfortunately, as the 1999 Government policy statement reveals, there is a very real risk that the same areas could still be used in the future!




zero lift



posted on May, 13 2008 @ 08:45 AM
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Come on, like you guys have never made a mistake. Can't we put this behind us? The past is the past. I am sure the govt's of the world have learned from their mistakes and would NEVER EVER do it again.

(^sarcasm)



posted on May, 14 2008 @ 06:17 AM
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I'm sure that nothing is further from their minds, Karlhungis - not!


As that 1999 letter (and the subsequent June 2006 confirmation from Porton Down ) proves, the whole of the UK is still at risk of again becoming a giant outdoor laboratory for future Government sponsored Biological Warfare experiments.

Further information about similar UK BW experiments, which were carried out in public areas across England and Wales between 1949-1975, can be viewed in two ITV television documentaries. Entitled - Top Secrets Revealed - they contain details of previously classified Porton Down Biological Warfare experiments such as, the Westwood Repository BW sabotage trials; the spraying of regular trains as they passed through a railway tunnel on the Salisbury - Exeter line; the spraying of the city of Salisbury during 1960; the LAC programme; the Lyme Bay Trials; the Icing Tanker Aircraft trials; the Collaborative UK/US Biological Detection trials of 1971, and the mysterious Joint UK/US 1975 DICE trials.

Top Secrets Revealed Episode 1 23 min 61 MB

Top Secrets Revealed Programme 2 23 min 61 MB



zero lift



posted on Sep, 26 2008 @ 04:06 PM
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Winston Churchill's government was prepared to let Blackpool suffer the Black Death rather than admit experimenting with germ warfare, a survivor of a test that went awry said yesterday.

Derek Bellerby was a crewman on the trawler Carella from Fleetwood, Lancs, which in Sept 1952 was the focus of panicked signals from the Admiralty after she accidentally sailed through the site of an experiment with pneumonic and bubonic plague germs.

[url=http://www.telegraph.co.uk/health/main.jhtml?view=DETAILS&grid=P8&xml=/health/2005/09/20/nplag19.xml]SOURCE



posted on Sep, 28 2008 @ 08:30 AM
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Winston Churchill's government was prepared to let Blackpool suffer the Black Death rather than admit experimenting with germ warfare, a survivor of a test that went awry said yesterday.

Derek Bellerby was a crewman on the trawler Carella from Fleetwood, Lancs, which in Sept 1952 was the focus of panicked signals from the Admiralty after she accidentally sailed through the site of an experiment with pneumonic and bubonic plague germs.

[url=http://www.telegraph.co.uk/health/main.jhtml?view=DETAILS&grid=P8&xml=/health/2005/09/20/nplag19.xml]SOURCE



You can download an excellent BBC Radio 4 programme which tells the whole sorry saga of how these BW experiments nearly caused a plague epidemic in the UK.


www.archive.org...








This series of UK 'hot' BW experiments codenamed - Operation CAULDRON - took place just off the coast of the Isle of Lewis, Scotland during 1952.

The adopted trials procedure was for the BW agents to be disseminated by static bomb or spray equipment, the resulting BW aerosols being carried by the wind over an arc of caged animals located on a specially converted
WW2 'MULBERRY' pontoon.

As the BW agents used in these experiments (plague - Yersinia pestis, and Brucella suis) were extremely pathogenic, the Porton Down scientists involved always wore full protected clothing (see pics below)

After each experiment the contaminated animals (Guinea-pigs and Rhesus monkeys) were taken from their cages and relocated to the converted tank landing ship (HMS BEN LOMOND). According to Porton Down documents, once there they were humanely killed and underwent autopsies which investigated the efficacy of the BW agents.
















zero lift



posted on Sep, 28 2008 @ 03:47 PM
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Britains 'Anthrax Island'

"I understand Winston Churchill was very keen on using anthrax," says local historian Donald McIntyre. "He didn't see why the devil should have all the best weapons."

news.bbc.co.uk...



posted on Sep, 30 2008 @ 03:47 PM
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posted on Oct, 12 2008 @ 12:42 PM
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reply to post by zero lift
 

My father was stationed in the South Pacific during WWII. He talked about various ships that were purposly engulfed in "a fog or clouds" conataining bacteria, toxins, or fisile material on their way home from the war. He said that the military was studying the effects of the exposures on the Navy personnel.

Were experiments that used "clouds" containing bacteria, toxins, or fisile material to engulf US Navy ships that were returinig from the Pacific theater (with Navy personnel on board) conducted at the end of WWII? If so, is there any literature that describes the "experiements"?



posted on Oct, 27 2008 @ 12:02 PM
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Chemtrails are still going on to this day. The chemical make up might be different from the BW aerosols used back in the 50's to 90's. But we're still seeing the spraying goin on over head.
Just yesterday even, we had a beautiful blue day turn to a white haze because of the amount of spraying they were doing above us.

Time to buy a gas mask and hazard suit i think.



posted on Oct, 27 2008 @ 01:47 PM
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Their analysis continued to show that at each stage, the West was unable to field an effective response to a Soviet attack using biological weapons.

That's the bottom line. They simply could not sit by and do nothing.



posted on Oct, 28 2008 @ 08:15 AM
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Originally posted by undermind
Their analysis continued to show that at each stage, the West was unable to field an effective response to a Soviet attack using biological weapons.

That's the bottom line. They simply could not sit by and do nothing.



Possibly, but that doesn't excuse the fact that their primary reaction was to repeatedly spray enormous areas of the UK and US with BW simulants; many of which can cause adverse health effects in susceptible individuals.

And to what effect?

The UK stopped development of a Biological Warfare early warning and detection capability in 1976; with the US following suit in 1983.

The BW threat wasn't taken seriously again until the first Gulf War, after which a battlefield BW detection system was developed.



zero lift

[edit on 28/10/08 by zero lift]





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