How Peter Interpreted Psalm 110
When the apostle Peter quoted Psalm 110 in his Pentecost sermon in 30 A.D., he clearly identified both the Jehovah Who is speaking in the prophecy and
the Jehovah Who sits at His right hand. Peter’s inspired interpretation of Psalm 110 makes it plain that David was not referring to himself when he
wrote this psalm. Peter quotes Psalm 110 to prove that the Being sitting at the right of Jehovah is not David but the exalted Jesus Christ! Peter
affirms that Jesus Christ was with Jehovah and was Jehovah before He became flesh.
In Peter’s inspired sermon, recorded in Acts 2, he testifies that the Jehovah on the left in Psalm 110:1 is both Theos (verse 32) and Kurios (verse
34), and that the Jehovah on the right is both Kurios (verses 34-35) and Christos (verse 35). Peter boldly declares that it is Theos, the Father, Who
has exalted Jesus and made Him Christos. Here is Peter’s inspired testimony:
“This Jesus hath God [Greek Theos, the Father] raised up [resurrected], whereof we all are witnesses. Therefore being by the right hand of God
[Greek Theos, the Father] exalted, and having received of the Father [Greek Pater, referring to Theos] the promise of the Holy Ghost [the Spirit of
Theos, the Father], He [the resurrected Jesus] hath shed forth this [the Holy Spirit of the Father], which ye now see and hear [the outward
manifestations of the Holy Spirit]. For David is not ascended into the heavens: but he [David] saith himself, The Lord [Greek Kurios, theFather] said
unto my [David’s] Lord [Greek Kurios, the Son], Sit Thou [theSon] on My right hand, until I [the Father] make Thy foes Thy footstool. Therefore let
all the house of Israel know assuredly, that God [Greek Theos, the Father] hath made that same Jesus, whom ye have crucified, both Lord [Greek Kurios]
and Christ [Greek Christos]” (Acts 2:32-36).
Peter’s words clearly show that the Jehovah/Adon of Psalm 110Who is sitting at the right hand of Jehovah is not King David! Peter emphatically
states that David is still in his grave, and that it is Jesus, Jehovah of the Old Testament and Kurios/Christos of the New, Who has been raised from
the dead by the power of the Father. It is the risen Christ Who has been exalted to sit at the right hand of God.
How Paul Interpreted Psalm 110
The apostle Paul also testifies that the Jehovah/Adon of Psalm 110 is Jesus Christ, the Son of Jehovah. In the first chapter of his epistle to the
Hebrews, Paul identifies the Jehovah on the left hand in Psalm 110 as Theos the Father, and the Jehovah on the right hand as Theos the Son. Paul’s
use of the Greek word Theos in this passage to name both the Father and the Son makes it clear that the Son is God in the full sense of the word. He
is Theos by the same definition that the Father is Theos. Paul emphasizes this truth by quoting several Old Testament passages to prove that the Son
(Greek Huios) is not a glorified angel or a superhuman being, but that He eternally pre-existed as God. Here is Paul’s testimony:
“God [Greek Theos, the Father], Who at sundry times and in divers manners spake in time past unto the fathers by the prophets, hath in these last
days spoken unto us by His Son [Greek Huios], Whom He hath appointed heir of all things, by Whom also He [the Father] made the worlds [thus Jesus is
called the Arche or Beginner of the creation]; Who [the Son] being the brightness of His [the Father’s] glory, and the express image of His [the
Father’s] person, and upholding all things by the word of His power, when He [Jesus Christ] had by Himself purged our sins, sat down on the right
hand of the Majesty on high; being made so much better than the angels [Greek aggelos], as He [the Son] hath by inheritance obtained a more excellent
name than they. For unto which of the angels [Greek aggelos] said He [the Father] at any time, Thou art My Son [Greek Huios], this day have I
begotten Thee [quoted from Psalm 2:7]? And again, I will be to Him a Father, and He shall be to Me a Son [Greek Huios] [quoted from II Samuel 7:14]?
And again, when He bringeth in the firstbegotten into the world, He [the Father] saith, And let all the angels of God worship Him [quoted from the
Septuagint, Deuteronomy 32:43]. And of the angels He saith, Who maketh His angels spirits, and His ministers a flame of fire [quoted from the
Septuagint, Psalm 104:4]. But unto the Son [Greek Huios] He [the Father] saith, Thy throne, O God [Greek Theos, the Son], is for ever and ever: a
sceptre of righteousness is the sceptre of Thy kingdom. Thou [the Son] hast loved righteousness, and hated iniquity; therefore God [Greek Theos, the
Father], even Thy God [Greek Theos, the Father], hath anointed Thee [the Son] with the oil of gladness above Thy fellows [quoted from Psalm 45:6-7].
And, Thou, Lord [Greek Kurios, the Jehovah of the Old Testament Who became the Son], in the beginning hast laid the foundation of the earth; and the
heavens are the works of Thine hands: they shall perish; but Thou remainest; and they all shall wax old as doth a garment; and as a vesture shalt
Thou fold them up, and they shall be changed: but Thou [the Son] art the same, and Thy years shall not fail [quoted from Psalm 102:25-27]. But to
which of the angels [Greek aggelos] said He [the Father] at any time, Sit on My right hand, until I make Thine enemies Thy footstool?” (Heb.
Paul’s inspired testimony makes it undeniably clear that Jesus Christ was never an angel. Paul quotes Psalm 110 and specifically points out that no
angel at any time was invited to sit at the right hand of the Father. Paul also quotes Psalm 2 to show that no angel at any time was begotten of the
Father. Paul shows that it is totally unscriptural to claim that Christ was ever an angel—or anything less than God.
In this passage, Paul offers irrefutable proof from the Old Testament to convince all who question the eternal existence of Jesus Christ as God. To
remove every doubt, Paul quotes the testimony of the Father Himself in Psalm 45 as evidence that Jesus Christ is God and will reign as God for all
eternity. As proof of the pre-existence of Jesus Christ as Jehovah of the Old Testament, Paul quotes Psalm 102 to demonstrate that Christ shared full
power and authority with the Father in the creation of the heavens and the earth.
Paul’s purpose in quoting these Old Testament scriptures was to shut the mouths of those who deny that Jesus Christ is God and that He has existed
from the beginning as God—a fully divine Being. In an earlier epistle, Paul specifically named Christ as the Rock of the Old Testament, the God Who
covenanted with Israel (I Cor. 10:4). In view of all the New Testament evidence, it is utter nonsense to deny the eternal pre-existence of Jesus
Christ as Creator and Lord, or Jehovah, of the Old Testament.
He revealed the Father Jehovah in the New Testament.