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The map was drawn about 1160 BC by the well-known Scribe-of-the-Tomb Amennakhte, son of Ipuy. It was prepared for Ramesses IV's quarrying expedition to the Wadi Hammamat in the Eastern Desert, which exposes Precambrian rocks of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. The purpose of the expedition was to obtain blocks of bekhen-stone (metagraywacke sandstone) to be used for statues of the king.
Rebar is usually used to allow concrete to be spread out and have some flexibility. Think of your driveway, highways, etc. They are of limited 'thickness' and also need to flex somewhat due to a variable load being placed on them. Rebar allows some displacement in some direction without fracturing (hopefully). Likewise, rebar also allows less concrete to be used without sacrificing strength- that's why it's called "reinforcing bar".
Originally posted by 68eric86
I didn't read all of this thread so sorry if this has been mentioned. But I have a hard time believing that any type of conrete without some sort of rebar in it would hold together underneath all of that weight. Not to mention the amount of time that has passed. Concrete gets very weak after long periods of time. I personally believe the ancient advanced civilization or alien theory myself.
4 But the king of Egypt said, "Moses and Aaron, why are you taking the people away from their labor? Get back to your work!" 5 Then Pharaoh said, "Look, the people of the land are now numerous, and you are stopping them from working." 6 That same day Pharaoh gave this order to the slave drivers and foremen in charge of the people: 7 "You are no longer to supply the people with straw for making bricks; let them go and gather their own straw. 8 But require them to make the same number of bricks as before; don't reduce the quota. They are lazy; that is why they are crying out, 'Let us go and sacrifice to our God.' 9 Make the work harder for the men so that they keep working and pay no attention to lies." 10 Then the slave drivers and the foremen went out and said to the people, "This is what Pharaoh says: 'I will not give you any more straw. 11 Go and get your own straw wherever you can find it, but your work will not be reduced at all.' " 12 So the people scattered all over Egypt to gather stubble to use for straw.
The point being that gravity pulls straight down. So a solid block transferring weight from anywhere between vertical to up to 45 degrees from vertical, if of sufficient density, should have little problem withstanding compression. This is also why the pyramids get smaller as they grow taller- less weight on top. If they didn't, they'd have wind-loading to deal with as well, which could shift the COG sufficiently to easily topple a solid structure like these.
Originally posted by 68eric86
reply to post by abecedarian
I don't disagree with what you answered. I guess to put it shortly I just have a hard time wrapping my mind around this theory. Just like I have a hard time with the ramp and cutting of stones with ropes, copper or whatever else the mainstream comes up with. By the way I like your signature.
Originally posted by grover
reply to post by Iamonlyhuman
There were several "dark ages" between the building of the pyramids and the Romans...
specifically there were 3 periods between the old kingdom...the middle kingdom and the new kingdom in which apparently the whole social order of ancient Egypt broke down.
Just like the dark age between the Mycenaean (Achaean) and the the people we know as the Greeks...much was lost in those centuries.
Originally posted by tauristercus
The main problem being that it's difficult to understand how the huge volume of rock/stone material from the inside of the jar/urn was removed if the only access was down the inside of the very narrow neck.
How would you go about grinding away that material to form the inside of the jar/urn ?