It looks like you're using an Ad Blocker.
Please white-list or disable AboveTopSecret.com in your ad-blocking tool.
Some features of ATS will be disabled while you continue to use an ad-blocker.
In calculus, a branch of mathematics, the derivative is a measure of how a function changes as its input changes. Loosely speaking, a derivative can be thought of as how much a quantity is changing at a given point; for example, the derivative of the position (or distance) of a vehicle with respect to time is the instantaneous velocity (respectively, instantaneous speed) at which the vehicle is traveling. Conversely, the integral of the velocity over time is the vehicle's position.
The derivative of a function at a chosen input value describes the best linear approximation of the function near that input value. For a real-valued function of a single real variable, the derivative at a point equals the slope of the tangent line to the graph of the function at that point. In higher dimensions, the derivative of a function at a point is a linear transformation called the linearization. A closely related notion is the differential of a function.
The process of finding a derivative is called differentiation. The fundamental theorem of calculus states that differentiation is the reverse process to integration.
The Derivatives Market is meant as the market where exchange of derivatives takes place. Derivatives are one type of securities whose price is derived from the underlying assets. And value of these derivatives is determined by the fluctuations in the underlying assets. These underlying assets are most commonly stocks, bonds, currencies, interest rates, commodities and market indices. As Derivatives are merely contracts between two or more parties, anything like weather data or amount of rain can be used as underlying assets. The Derivatives can be classified as Future Contracts, Forward Contracts, Options, Swaps and Credit Derivatives.
The Types of Derivative MarketThe Derivative Market can be classified as Exchange Traded Derivatives Market and Over the Counter Derivative Market.
Exchange Traded Derivatives are those derivatives which are traded through specialized derivative exchanges whereas Over the Counter Derivatives are those which are privately traded between two parties and involves no exchange or intermediary. Swaps, Options and Forward Contracts are traded in Over the Counter Derivatives Market or OTC market.
The main participants of OTC market are the Investment Banks, Commercial Banks, Govt. Sponsored Enterprises and Hedge Funds. The investment banks markets the derivatives through traders to the clients like hedge funds and the rest.
In the Exchange Traded Derivatives Market or Future Market, exchange acts as the main party and by trading of derivatives actually risk is traded between two parties. One party who purchases future contract is said to go “long” and the person who sells the future contract is said to go “short”. The holder of the “long” position owns the future contract and earns profit from it if the price of the underlying security goes up in the future. On the contrary, holder of the “short” position is in a profitable position if the price of the underlying security goes down, as he has already sold the future contract. So, when a new future contract is introduced, the total position in the contract is zero as no one is holding that for short or long.
The trading of foreign exchange traded derivatives or the future contracts has emerged as very important financial activity all over the world just like trading of equity-linked contracts or commodity contracts. The derivatives whose underlying assets are credit, energy or metal, have shown a steady growth rate over the years around the world. Interest rate is the parameter which influences the global trading of derivatives, the most.
Derivative Market and Financial RiskDerivatives play a vital role in risk management of both financial and non-financial institutions. But, in the present world, it has become a rising concern that derivative market operations may destabilize the efficiency of financial markets. In today’s’ world the companies the financial and non-financial firms are using forward contracts, future contracts, options, swaps and other various combinations of derivatives to manage risk and to increase returns. It is true that growth of derivatives market reveal the increasing market demand for risk managing instruments in the economy. But, the major concern is that, the main components of Over the Counter (OTC) derivatives are interest rates and currency swaps. So, the economy will suffer surely if the derivative instruments are misused and if a major fault takes place in derivatives market.
Banks Create the Money They Lend
Bankers will tell you that they do not create money. At a 10% reserve requirement, they simply lend out 90% of their deposits. The catch is that their “deposits” include the money they have written into their customers’ accounts as loans. That is how loans are made: numbers are simply written into the accounts of borrowers, as many reputable authorities have attested. Here are two of them, dating back to when officials were either more aware of what was going on or more open about it:
“[W]hen a bank makes a loan, it simply adds to the borrower’s deposit account in the bank by the amount of the loan. The money is not taken from anyone else’s deposit; it was not previously paid in to the bank by anyone. It’s new money, created by the bank for the use of the borrower.”
– Robert B. Anderson, Treasury Secretary under Eisenhower, in an interview reported in the August 31, 1959 issue of U.S. News and World Report
“Do private banks issue money today? Yes. Although banks no longer have the right to issue bank notes, they can create money in the form of bank deposits when they lend money to businesses, or buy securities. . . . The important thing to remember is that when banks lend money they don’t necessarily take it from anyone else to lend. Thus they ‘create’ it.”
– Congressman Wright Patman, Money Facts (House Committee on Banking and Currency, 1964)
Key Regulatory Issues Facing Georgia’s Banks
• Regulatory interpretations of accounting guidelines/FASB 114/5; fair value of real estate
• Downward pressure on asset prices caused by market forces and unintended consequences of
government stability programs
• Difficulty of obtaining reasonable and consistent property appraisals continues to put downward pressure on property and collateral values
• Deposit rate caps: New FDIC nationally set price to determine rate caps to further stress struggling Georgia banks that are required to raise local deposits to replace brokered deposits
• Brokered deposits: Requirements prohibiting banks that are considered to be less than “well capitalized” from renewing brokered deposits or seeking new brokered deposits creates immediate funding and liquidity problems for banks that can least afford them. There are reasonable ways to lessen the impact without increasing risk to the deposit insurance fund or artificially distorting the local deposit market.
• FDIC special assessment: will cost Georgia banks more than $133 million -- more than combined 2008 profits. More special assessments are likely, according to FDIC.
• Loan-Loss Reserve effect on regulatory capital: Artificial disallowance of more than $1.8 billion of capital in Georgia banks
• Loan renewals for commercial borrowers that are current on their loans are becoming difficult for some banks facing declining capital levels because of regulatory legal lending limits
• Access to capital and sources of liquidity continue to be limited by the market and regulatory issues.
Requirements prohibiting banks that are considered to be less than “well capitalized” from renewing brokered deposits or seeking new brokered deposits creates immediate funding and liquidity problems for banks that can least afford them. There are reasonable ways to lessen the impact without increasing risk to the deposit insurance fund or artificially distorting the local deposit market. One possible helpful easing of the regulation would allow “adequately capitalized” banks to renew maturing brokered deposits but continue to prohibit them from acquiring new brokered deposits. This would allow some funding stability for the bank without increasing the potential cost to the deposit insurance fund. If the statute cannot be changed regarding brokered deposits, banks having to shed those deposits should be allowed to reduce their reliance over a longer period of time than simply upon renewal. If the FDIC could require an orderly reduction of brokered deposits of perhaps 10% per quarter or some other reasonable number, the impact would less.
Dr. Van de Meer predicts monetary collapse of US starting on September 30th
A private but extremely influential silent individual, Dr. Michael Van de Meer is the person predicting a financial collapse of the United States starting on September 30th. That is the end of the fiscal year and the final date for payments the Federal Reserve Board wants to act, but cannot, because it is in a catatonic state, as the leaders of every state in the world is.
There will also be indications on September the 16th, he informed me some ten months ago, “Although September 30th will be the tipping point at which the tree’s fate is determined, the branches will not hit the ground until October 7 and 27th and going on into November,” he says.
Dr. Van de Meer correctly predicted the financial panic that started in September of 2008 (also 10 months in advance) and has made many other accurate predictions.
In a separate confirmation the Chinese Government is no longer entertaining and investing in derivatives, and have declared a Nova-to, meaning they will not be paying the trillions “due” on these these illegal instruments. In fact the Chinese are using stronger language saying these criminally foisted instruments are a declaration of a financial war.
Meanwhile, in a significant break in corporate media censorship, the CBS TV program 60 minutes reported that Alan Greenspan, in concert with Bill Clinton and George Bush Senior facilitated in the year 2000, during the middle of the night, the passage of a criminal, highly illegal unconstitutional Bill that created the mortgage and property bubble. The bill allowed unscrupulous individuals in the major Banks and Insurance Corporations such as A.I.G. to hedge bets at a cent to the dollar. This allowed them to create derivatives contracts whose supposed face value runs into the quintillions of dollars (In either the British or American systems that is the next number after a quadrillion!) . On September 30th all these fiat numbers created out of nothing will no longer be accepted. Both China and Japan have not said they will only accept gold from America but they have none. Bernanke and Geithner are desperately calling the people who own the gold and asking for some but they have been told they will not get even one ounce.
The bundling of the worthless inflated dollars created a devaluation in the banking system and major banks went down in a domino spiral, the affects of which will be felt for many years around the world. The destruction of the world’s accounting system is so extreme that the tax base of every state and municipal government is strained, some house values have fallen 80%, farmers cannot get credit for parts, seed, fertilizers and water meaning many innocent people will pay, maybe even with their lives.
The Wall street banksters that own the Fed are being forced to put all their derivatives garbage on the books by September 30th. If they do that, they will be exposed as totally bankrupt.
The new financial system has been embraced by the Vatican, the British Empire and the Dragon family as well as the new Japanese government so it is hard to see how the Fed will be able meet the demands. Also people are now on to them and without secrecy their entire fiat con-job ceases to function.
The new financial system will not allow any off ledger transactions nor any hedge funds or derivatives. Wall Street will not be allowed to as Dr. Van de Meer puts it to “do all their contrivances selling worthless air and paper and contrived named instruments that by their very names are comic to the ear. They have been gerrymandered to fool the millions who buy worthless stocks just like little old ladies in sneakers working slot machines”.
The American people who are 4% of the world’s population but consume 40% of the world’s resources have been paying for it all with illusory money. The illusion has burst and there will be a 90 degree fall in the value of money,followed by a lot of hard work as the country rebuilds itself back into greatness. Fortunately, by developing all the new technology that was suppressed by the Feds, the end result of the rebuilding will be a golden age for all. But remember, there will be no gain without pain. However, the Americans are resilient people and will pull together and be a more informed and strong nation once again. First though, they need to seek out this Wall Street crowd; tar and feather them, and run them out of the country on a rail.
The Obama administration’s $75 billion mortgage bailout program to help some 9 million struggling home owners is off to a slow start. So far 55,000 people have had their loans modified according to this CNN Money report.
There certainly had to be a ramp up period for loan servicers to get their systems and people in place to be able to accommodate the crushing requests from homeowners. But at this pace, it will take the full second term of the Obama administration to get the 9 million complete – if that.
It’s really an unbelievable time in the mortgage business right now. The people I talk with are extremely busy working with people to refinance and with new purchases. The people running the backend systems must be running full tilt because not only do that have all the new loan requests and refi’s, but they have to deal with all the people falling behind on their payments, foreclosure filings and now the massive under taking to try to modify some 9 million loans…many of which, by the way, will not likely be able to be modified.
Originally posted by questioningall
reply to post by rogerstigers
If the insiders are getting rid of their stocks, there is inside information - jeez, isn't there a law on the books about that?