Missile warning and space operations were combined to form Air Force Space Command in 1982. During the Cold War, space operations focused on missile warning, and command and control for national leadership. In 1991, Operation Desert Storm provided emphasis for the command's new focus on support to the warfighter. ICBM forces were merged into AFSPC in 1993.
Point of contact
Air Force Space Command
Public Affairs Office
150 Vandenberg St., Suite 1105
Peterson AFB, CO 80914-4500
(719) xxx-xxxx or DSN 692-3731
In Popular Culture
In the popular TV series Stargate SG-1 and Stargate Atlantis, the Stargate Program is run by the Air Force Space Command. The AF Space Command Patch was worn on the uniform of personnel aboard the Prometheus, Earth's first operational deep space battle cruiser.
General Kevin P. Chilton
Commander, Air Force Space Command
"The establishment of Space Command is a crucial milestone in
the evolution of military space operations. Space is a place--like
land, sea, and air--a theater of operations. And it was just a matter
of time until space was treated as such."
~ General James V. Hartinger, 1 September 1982
Naval Space Command
Beginning in the mid-1980s, concurrent with the development of space operations and space engineering curricula at the Naval Postgraduate School, the Navy began “coding” officers as space subspecialists. As space subspecialty codes were then assigned to particular officers’ billets on numbered Fleet staffs and at commands ashore, the service began assigning Navy members with matching codes to those positions. More recently, the Navy has begun efforts to build a cadre of “space smart” officers, enlisted personnel and civilian employees.
The Naval Space Cadre is composed of active-duty and reserve Navy and Marine Corps officers and enlisted personnel, along with Navy civilian employees from a wide range of career fields who meet mandatory education, training and experience standards established for a particular certification level. The Navy Space Cadre is a distinct body of expertise horizontally and vertically integrated within Navy and Marine Corps active duty, reserves and civilian employee communities organized to
Initial identification of the cadre began in mid-2001 with the standup of the Naval Space Cadre Working Group and culminated in a naval message (NAVADMIN 201/03 DTG211435Z JUL 03) announcing the first 700 officer members of the cadre. These officers were identified by the subspecialty codes of 6206, Space Systems Operations, and 5500, Space Systems Engineering or by the additional qualification designator of VS1, VS2, VS3 or VS4. Identification of enlisted and civilian cadre members is more challenging, as these groups do not have specif?ic space identifiers like the officers do.
Approximately 265 billets are currently identified as space billets. These jobs are in Navy, joint and National Security Space organizations. Space cadre members are currently assigned throughout the National Security Space arena, including the National Reconnaissance Office, National Security Space Architect, National Security Space Integration, MILSATCOM Joint Program Office, as well as in all Navy organizations that deal with space.
"It's tough to describe how hard we all worked on MOL. But it was a huge part of our lives and, because of how hard we worked, we all learned a lot about ourselves and our abilities." - Vice Adm. Richard H. Truly
Richard Harrison Truly was born November 12, 1937, in Fayette, Mississippi. He attended the Georgia
Institute of Technology, where he received his bachelor of aeronautical engineering in 1959. In 1964, he attended what is now the Air Force Test Pilot School at Edwards Air Force Base in California, where he later became an instructor.
Following MOL, Richard Truly joined NASA and became a member of the astronaut support crew and capsule communicator (CAPCOM) for all three manned Skylab missions in 1973 as well as the 1975 Apollo-Soyuz mission. He piloted Columbia in 1981 and served as space shuttle commander during the third Challenger mission in 1983, after which he left NASA to become the first commander of the Naval Space Command. He returned to NASA one month after the tragic Challenger explosion that killed all seven crew in 1986.
Truly became head of the agency for three years starting in 1989. Already a retired vice admiral in the U.S. Navy, he has since held a number of distinguished academic, government, and professional positions.
His decorations include the Defense Distinguished Service Medal, Defense Superior Service Medal, two Legions of Merit, and the Distinguished Flying Cross, as well as a host of honors from NASA.
PERSONAL DATA: Born April 15, 1951 in Fort Belvoir, Virginia, but considers Scottsdale, Arizona to be his hometown. Married to the former Laura Jean Doell of Scotia, New York. They have two children. Enjoys skiing, swimming, kayaking, and hiking.
EDUCATION: Graduated from Scottsdale High School, Arizona, in 1966; received a B.S. degree in mathematics from the U.S. Naval Academy in 1972; an M.S. in aeronautical systems from the University of West Florida in 1974; and an M.S. and Ph.D. in geophysics and space physics from UCLA in 1984 and 1987, respectively.
SPECIAL HONORS: National Merit Scholar; graduated second of 906 at USNA; awarded the NASA Space Flight Medal, NASA Distinguished Service Medal, the Gagarin Medal, the Komarov Diploma, the Los Alamos National Laboratory Distinguished Performance Award, and various military awards.
SPACE FLIGHT EXPERIENCE: STS-100 Endeavour (April 19 to May 1, 2001). During the 12-day, 187 orbit mission, the crew successfully delivered and installed the Canadarm-2 robotic arm. They also delivered experiments and supplies aboard the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaelloon its maiden flight. Phillips was the Ascent/Entry Flight engineer and was the intravehicular activity coordinator during two space walks.
ISS Expedition 11 (April 15 to October 10, 2005). Phillips launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan aboard Soyuz TMA-6, and served as NASA Science Officer and Flight Engineer aboard ISS. During their six-month stay aboard ISS the crew continued station maintenance, worked with scientific experiments, performed a spacewalk in Russian spacesuits from the Pirs Airlock, and hosted the “return to flight” visit of the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-114). The ISS-11 crew landed in Kazakhstan on October 10, 2005. In completing his second mission Phillips logged 179 days and 23 minutes in space including an EVA totaling 4 hours and 58 minutes.
The United States Naval Observatory (USNO) is one of the oldest scientific agencies in the United States. Located in Northwest Washington, D.C., it is one of the few astronomical observatories located in an urban area; at the time of its construction, it was far from the light pollution generated by the (then-smaller) city center.
Established by order of Secretary of the Navy John Branch on 6 December, 1830 as the Depot of Charts and Instruments, the Observatory rose from humble beginnings. Placed under the command of Lieutenant Louis M. Goldsborough, with an annual budget of $330, its primary function was the restoration, repair, and rating of navigational instruments. It was made into a national observatory in 1842 via a federal law and a Congressional appropriation of $25,000. Lieutenant James Melville Gilliss was put in charge of the project, which was completed in 1844.
The observatory's primary mission was to care for the United States Navy's marine chronometers, charts, and other navigational equipment. It calibrated ships' chronometers by timing the transit of stars across the meridian. Initially located downtown in Foggy Bottom (near the Lincoln Memorial), the observatory was moved to its present location in 1893, atop Observatory Hill overlooking Massachusetts Avenue, amidst perfectly circular grounds.
The Naval Research Laboratory is not affiliated in any way with any organization selling lunar property or acreage on the moon. NRL has no involvement, either officially or unofficially, in providing "after-sales service" for the purchase of lunar property from the Lunar Embassy, its franchisees, or any similar organizations. Disputes arising from the purchase of lunar property from such organizations must be resolved with the seller directly.
NRL was responsible for the design, manufacture, integration, and mission execution of the Clementine spacecraft for the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization. During its two-month orbit of the Moon in 1994, Clementine captured 1.8 million images of the Moon's surface. The Laboratory provides the Clementine Lunar Image Browser as a courtesy to scientific researchers, as well as the general public, and you are welcome to browse the over 170,000 images that are available.
Q: Can you update us on... The colonel mentioned that by the time he got to the office in 1989 it was pretty clear the U.S. wasn't going to deploy a space-based missile defense system. What's happened to the Star Wars program? How is your office changing? What are you using this technology for today?
A: Although many of the space platforms that were really envisioned as part of the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization program back in 1989 have not been supported and continued because of the change in emphasis, including the name of the organization to the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization, we're now primarily focused on theater missile defense and national missile defense -- defense of the U.S. continent and Alaska and Hawaii with a much reduced threat. And of course we have the demise of the Cold War to thank for that.
However, there is still a space-borne component to our theater and national missile defense architecture, and that is the space-based infrared satellite. That will allow us to do tracking, particularly in boost and in the mid-course phases of the trajectory of a ballistic missile. So all the technologies that were demonstrated on Clementine are technologies that we would hope would be either used or would be the grand-daddies of technologies that we would eventually use in our space surveillance platforms. So that part of the space architecture is still very much alive.
Q: But the role of the so-called Star Wars system now has shifted to more of a surveillance, as opposed to shooting something down...
A: No, it is still based on shooting down ballistic missiles by impact with interceptors. So this technology is important in order to track and pass the track files on to the interceptors in order to allow them to hit their targets. So it's very much a part of the architecture.
Q: That translates to what in volume?
A: We were very conservative in the press release, but if you take basically 100 square kilometers by roughly 50 feet, you get a volume of something like a quarter of a cubic mile, I think it's on that order. It's a considerable amount, but it's not a huge glacier or anything like that.
Q: Can you compare that with something you know?
A: It's a lake. A small lake.
Q: Where is Clementine now?
A: The spacecraft, as you know, from the name Clementine, is only supposed to be here for a short period of time and be lost and gone forever, so it was intended for a very short period of time after this lunar mission, did a rendezvous with the earth, and shortly after that was shifted by the moon's
gravity and continued a flight which will bring it back near the earth about nine years from now. So it's an 11 year total flight around the sun. So basically it's moving like a little planet around the sun, and it will bring it back close to us in about nine years... It's two years since it left us so it will be another nine years before it's back. But it's not useful right now. The mission is finished.
Q: But unlike it's namesake, it's not lost and gone forever. It will be back?
A: It will be back, but it's not a useful spacecraft any more.
Efforts to conquer space began in earnest in the early 1960s when the first U.S. manned spacecraft Freedom 7 was successfully launched and recovered May 5, 1961. Both Astronaut Alan Shepard and the Freedom 7 were flown safely by helicopter to the deck of the USS Lake Champlain within 11 minutes of landing. With that successful recovery, President John F. Kennedy challenged the nation to land men on the moon and return them safely to earth before 1970.
Space Program drives Navy to reorganization. In answer to the challenge, NASA launched the Apollo Space Program. It soon became apparent that supporting the space program would be a significant priority for the Navy. Indeed, support of the space program and the launching of its own satellite navigation systems drove a number of organizational changes within the Navy. Along with some existing challenges the Navy had been battling for some time.
(U) Headquartered at Dahlgren, Virginia, NAVSPACECOM began operations October 1, 1983. NAVSPACECOM uses the medium of space and its potential to provide essential information and capabilities to ashore and afloat naval forces by:
-Operating assigned systems;
-Executing missions assigned by USCINCSPACE;
-Advocating naval warfighting requirements in the joint arena; and
-Advising, supporting, and assisting naval services through training and by developing space plans, programs, budgets, policies, concepts, and doctrine.
(U) NAVSPACECOM also serves as the naval service component of the United States Space Command (USSPACECOM), established in 1985. Component responsibilities include operating assigned space systems to provide surveillance and warning, as well as providing spacecraft telemetry and on-orbit engineering support. In addition, NAVSPACECOM provides facilities and staffs a command center 24 hours a day to serve as the Alternate Space Control Center (ASCC) for USSPACECOM's primary center located at Cheyenne Mountain Air Force Base, Colo. ASCC missions include operational direction of the entire global Space Surveillance Network for CINCSPACE. The ASCC also detects, tracks, identifies, and catalogs all man-made objects in space and provides ephemeris on these objects to approximately1,000 customers. It also monitors the space environment and informs owners and operators of U.S. and allied space systems of potential threat to their assets by continuous liaison with the systems' operations centers. Finally, NAVSPACECOM provides administrative oversight for two Echelon 3 operational Navy activities: the Naval Satellite Operations Center (NAVSOC) and the Fleet Surveillance Support Command (FLTSURVSUPPCOM).
US Naval Space Command Space Surveillance System
The PEO Space Systems mission is to develop, acquire, integrate, produce, launch, test and provide operational support to reliable, affordable, flexible, effective and seamless space systems that support DOD and U.S. agencies to enable joint, coalition, combined and naval operations. PEO Space Systems coordinates all Department of the Navy space research, development and acquisition activities.
The naval services' growing dependence on space prompted the Secretary of the Navy to establish a new command that would consolidate space activities and organizations that operate and maintain naval space systems. This new organization - the Naval Space Command - was commissioned on October 1, 1983. It was a decisive move to bring together several activities under a single command to strengthen operational control, provide a central focal point for naval space matters, and more effectively guide future operational uses of space.
The Naval Research Laboratory's concept exploration program to demonstrate sea launch and recovery of a rocket.
Praxis provided program planning and control, graphics and presentation support, hardware and software technical documentation development, networks scheduling, and launch site support. Praxis was responsible for a number of high level briefings to U.S. Navy and Congressional staff to support the development of the Cooperative Research and Development Agreement signed between the Naval Research Laboratory and the SEALAR corporation.
Note: Praxis is the company that made the Clementine Satellite for the DoD/Navy Mission
The Birchum Mesa SELENE (Space Laser Energy) facility will be dual use facility as it provides for progressive development of high power Free Electron Lasers (FEL) and commercial laser beam power transfer to space-borne vehicles. The facility will be comprised of SELENE mainsite containing two laser system bays and supporting facilities with transport tunnels coupling to the Beam Transfer Optical System (BTOS) which is the active optical array space beam director with its supporting facility. The first generation commercial grade laser will operate at 100 kW of quasi-CW laser power with a planned growth to 10 MW of output power. The BTOS beam director will direct a focus compensated laser power beam to provide power service to space vehicles within a +/- 50 degree (half angle from zenith) tracking cone service field. An underground hardened site is proposed for this facility to mitigate any potentially hazardous effects from operation of a very high energy CW electron beam laser, to protect the facility from inadvertent weapons splashdown during range Test and Evaluation operations, and to create minimum environmental impact upon historical and ecological elements of the range.
The site for the proposed National Advanced Optic Mission Initiative (NAOMI) facility will be in the mountains near China Lake, California. This location has 260 clear days per year (more than any other feasible site in the U.S.). In 1993 there were 5 completely overcast days all year. The area near the proposed site is unpopulated. The solar insolation in this general area is the greatest of any area in the United States.
The NAOMI system will be installed at an altitude of 5600 feet. Astronomical seeing there is excellent. Even at a less favored site than that planned for NAOMI the average Fried seeing coefficient ro is 12 cm in the visible region and 20 cm values of ro (comparable to the best observatories) are commonly observed. The area is centrally located in and entirely surrounded by one of the largest restricted airspace/military operating airspace complexes in the United States, 12% of the entire airspace in California. Electrical power is available from either the nearly Coso Geothermal plant, second largest in the United States, or from the even closer cogeneration plant at Trona, California.
Cooling water can be obtained from the nearby area or from the lake itself. Although a dry playa, the lake has a high brackish groundwater level. Most of the commercial satellites over the U.S. could be reached by a laser/telescope system located on government land at the Naval Air Weapons Station (NAWS) military reservation at China Lake. This telescope/laser system will be a prototype for five other systems planned for around the world. The complex will provide laser power beaming to all satellites and put the United States into the position of world leader in satellite technology and power beaming to space.
The development of the Beam Transmission Optical System (BTOS) is a portion of a larger project entitled SpacE Laser Electric ENErgy (SELENE). The SELENE project utilizes a high energy, free electron laser to transfer energy from the ground to orbiting spacecraft or other space targets such as a lunar base  BTOS is the systcm that delivers the beam energy from the laser to the target.
The primary mission objective of SELENE is to provide energy for operation of geosynchronous satellites including steady-state power for operations, periodic low power for station keeping, periodic high power during eclipses, and high power for transfer orbit apogee burn.  SELENE will also provide energy for operation at middle and high earth orbits (MEO) of 3000+ kilometers. Another possible usage for SELENE will be to provide energy to a laser-augmented solar-electric orbit transfer vehicle wherein a low earth orbit (LEO) vehicle transfers to geosynchronous orbit (GEO) through a spiral trajectory path. Finally, SELENE will provide continuous steady-state energy for operation of a lunar base.
Flights of the lightweight, radio-controlled model airplane inside a large building at NASA Marshall are believed to be the first time that a plane has been powered only by laser energy. The demonstration was a key step toward the capability to beam power to an aircraft, allowing it to stay in flight indefinitely -- a concept with potential for the scientific community as well as the remote sensing and telecommunications industries.
-solar-pumped lasers in lunar orbit would beam power to the lunar surface for conversion into either electricity or propulsion needs. For example, lunar rovers could be much more flexible and lighter than rovers using other primary power sources
-Also, laser power could be absorbed by lunar soil to create a hard glassy surface for dust-free roadways and launch pads
-Laser power transmission is shown to be a highly flexible, enabling primary power source for lunar missions.
TOKYO (Nikkei)--The government will by the end of this year start developing technologies designed to eventually beam electricity from solar panels in space down to the earth.
An artist's image of a compact satellite for use in an experiment to transmit power down to the earth. (Courtesy of JAXA) A public solicitation for firms to participate in the endeavor will soon be made; the companies may be selected as early as next month.
The government expects players in the electronics and heavy electric machinery industries to participate. The hope is to commercialize orbital solar power by 2030. Such a system would have such advantages as generating electricity regardless of the weather on the ground.
The project will develop technologies to transmit power down to the earth. The idea is to convert solar electricity into microwaves, which would then be converted back into electricity at the surface.
The European Space Agency's general studies programme is to assess a laser-based SBPS concept for Earth and for the lunar surface. Small scale science missions' laser power transmissions will also be considered.
The ESA work will include an assessment of the integration of space-based solar power plants into terrestrial ones, "including innovative approaches to orbit selection [and] methods for the adaptation of terrestrial solar power plants to serve in addition as receiving stations for space solar power plants".
According to the European agency direct solar pumped laser technologies offer the option of increasing total laser conversion efficiencies "by an order of magnitude" and innovative beam control and steering technologies, laser to electricity conversion systems and a combination of parallel data, power transmission techniques are of interest.