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Global Bill for Alzheimer's Nears Quarter-Trillion Dollars
The estimated total worldwide cost of caring for people with Alzheimer's disease and dementia now tops $248 billion U.S annually, researchers said Sunday. ...That estimate, based on a worldwide prevalence estimate of nearly 28 million people with Alzheimer's and dementia...
Studies Link Diabetes to Risk of Alzheimer’s
Several new studies suggest that diabetes increases the risk of Alzheimer’s disease, adding to a store of evidence that links the disorders. The studies involve only Type 2 diabetes, the most common type, which is usually related to obesity. ...The connection raises an ominous prospect: that increases in diabetes, a major concern in the United States and worldwide, may worsen the rising toll from Alzheimer’s. The findings also add dementia to the cloud of threats that already hang over people with diabetes...
“Alzheimer’s is going to swamp the health-care system,” said Dr. John C. Morris, a neurology professor at Washington University in St. Louis, and an advisor to the Alzheimer’s Association. ...In the past decade, several large studies found that, compared to healthy people of the same age and sex, those with Type 2 diabetes were twice as likely to develop Alzheimer’s. The reason is not known, but researchers initially suspected that cardiovascular problems caused by diabetes might contribute to dementia by blocking blood flow to the brain or causing strokes.
More recently, though, scientists have begun to think that the diseases are connected in other ways as well. In both, destructive deposits of amyloid, a type of protein, build up: in the brain in Alzheimer’s, in the pancreas in Type 2 diabetes. ...About 20 million people in the United States have Type 2 diabetes. The number has doubled in the past two decades. Another 41 million are “pre-diabetic,” with blood sugar rising toward the diabetic level. Diabetes rates are expected to increase because rates of obesity are rising, and epidemiologists predict that one in three American children born in 2000 will eventually develop Type 2.
Worldwide, diabetes is also on the rise, increasing to 230 million cases from 30 million in the past 20 years.
The number of people around the world suffering from diabetes has skyrocketed in the last two decades, from 30 million to 230 million, claiming millions of lives and severely taxing the ability of health care systems to deal with the epidemic, according to data released Saturday by the International Diabetes Federation.
Antidepressants Can Increase Diabetes Risk: Those already at high risk for type 2 boost chances by taking drugs to fight depression
It could take half a century or more for someone infected with prions - the cause of mad cow-like diseases - to start showing (clinically verifiable) symptoms, say researchers, who drew that conclusion after studying a similar illness among Papua New Guinean people who once feasted on their dead.
Their findings suggest that the number of human cases of variant Creutzfeld-Jacob disease (vCJD) could end up being much larger than originally suspected, say the researchers, whose study is published in Friday's edition of The Lancet.
Common behavioral and cognitive sequelae of stroke include depression, psychosis, anxiety, personality change, aphasia, and dysprosody among others...
Frontal lobe injuries, violence, and aggression
Knowledge stored in the human prefrontal cortex may exert control over more primitive behavioral reactions to environmental provocation. Therefore, following frontal lobe lesions, patients are more likely to use physical intimidation or verbal threats in potential or actual confrontational situations. ...ventromedial frontal lobe lesions increase the risk of aggressive and violent behavior.
Self-reported aggressive behavior in patients with stroke.
This study represents a first attempt to identify some of the clinical and pathoanatomical correlates of violent outbursts in patients with cerebrovascular accident. ...proximity of lesion to the frontal pole was one of the factors related to the self-reported irritable/violent behavior. ...the potential for anger and violence in patients with stroke has multiple clinical and neuropathological correlates, including greater cognitive impairment and left anterior hemisphere lesions.
Depression and Stroke Disease
Emotional disturbances following stroke have long been recognised. Whilst important states such as emotional lability and indifference are common and well recognised, they have received much less interest from the research community than anxiety and especially depressive syndromes occurring after stroke.
Depression has strong bidirectional relationships with both coronary artery disease (CAD) and stroke (Thomas et al., 2004). There have been many reports in "pure" depression syndromes, especially in older people, of an increase in subcortical lesions in both the white matter and the basal ganglia (O'Brien et al., 1996).
These lesions manifest as hyperintense lesions on MRI and are strongly associated with vascular risk factors and there is pathological evidence that such lesions are indeed due to cerebral ischaemia and cerebrovascular disease (CVD) (Thomas et al., 2002).
Affective disorders and cerebral vascular disease.
Empirical studies have recently demonstrated that major and minor depressive disorders occur in 30-50% of stroke patients, and last more than one year without treatment... These mood disorders are not strongly associated with severity of impairment, demographic characteristics, social supports or prior personal history, but major depression is often strongly associated with left frontal or left basal ganglia lesions and pre-existing subcortical atrophy. ...Mania is a rare complication of stroke...
Emotionalism is common after stroke... found especially in patients with left frontal and temporal lesions.
Depression and Stroke
Aggressive behavior in patients with stroke
Several factors, such as severity of impairment, other psychopathology, and neurobiologic factors, appear to contribute to irritable and aggressive behavior in stroke patients.
Mood disorders in long-term survivors of stroke: associations with brain lesion location and volume.
Apathy following cerebrovascular lesions.
...apathy is a frequent finding among patients with acute stroke lesions and may coexist with important emotional and cognitive poststroke disturbances.
Generalized anxiety disorder in stroke patients.
This prospective study examined the prevalence and longitudinal course of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) after stroke and its comorbidity with major depression over time. The contributions of lesion characteristics, functional impairment, and psychosocial factors to the development of GAD after stroke were studied. ...GAD after stroke is a common and long-lasting affliction that interferes substantially with social life and functional recovery.
Mood changes after right-hemisphere lesions.
Mood disorders following stroke
White Matter Changes in Depression and Alzheimer's Disease: A Review of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Studies
This article reviews magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of white matter lesions in depression and Alzheimer's disease. Although conflicting reports exist, many studies show that white matter lesions are more prevalent in both conditions, with depression associated with deep white matter lesions (DWML) and Alzheimer's disease with periventricular lesions (PVL). In normal ageing and depression there is some evidence that such lesions may be associated with neuropsychological dysfunction...
Ischemic basis for deep white matter hyperintensities in major depression: a neuropathological study.
White matter hyperintensities on magnetic resonance imaging are increased in major depression in the deep white matter, especially in frontal areas. ...Deep white matter hyperintensities are more frequently due to cerebral ischemia, and such ischemic lesions are more frequently located at the level of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in depressed subjects. Our findings strongly support the "vascular depression" hypothesis...
Behavior and Mood Disorders in Focal Brain Lesions
This is the first clinical reference work to specifically address the relationship of focal brain dysfunction to behavioral and emotional disorders, providing the most comprehensive account available of these manifestations of brain lesions including stroke, trauma, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, and even neurosurgery. A worldwide team of neuroscientists and clinicians examines the links between regional brain dysfunction and disorders of mood, thought and affect processing, and behavior.
Alzheimer's deterioration may go unnoticed in some seniors
People can have the brain deterioration that comes with Alzheimer's disease without showing debilitating symptoms, a new study finds. ...Researchers in the U.S. studied the brains of 134 clergy who donated their bodies to science. They were in their 80s on average when they died.
None had clinical symptoms of Alzheimer's before they died, but 37 per cent showed lesions on the brain associated with the disease, a research team reported in Tuesday's issue of the journal Neurology. ..."It means that a large number of people can accumulate all of this disease pathology and still be functioning very well," said study author Dr. David A. Bennett of the Rush Alzheimer's Disease Center in Chicago.
...Feldman is convinced the brain is a "use-it-or-lose-it" organ. Seniors with a higher education who stay mentally active and socially connected as they age can have the disease without knowing it, he said.
...it wasn’t until the latest boom to the health care industry and pharmaceutical conglomerate that now all the social, mental and physical problems has been separated into groups so treatment for profits can be exploited to the maximum.
Originally posted by soficrow
...Please, take a look at the numbers. Ie., an increase in diabetes from 30 million people to 230 million in just 20 years.
And ten years ago the population of Alzheimer's and dementia patients in nursing homes was only about 5% - now, it's 50-60% and still rising. And many of these dementia patients in nursing homes are not elderly.
Compared to early offenders without organic brain syndrome, early starters with organic brain syndrome may be at particular risk for antisocial behavior and recidivism. In addition, organic brain syndrome patients with no criminal history may rapidly become at risk for offending because of their brain disorder. These findings underlie the importance of investigating the association of brain structure and activity in the development of offending and violent behavior.
...organic brain syndrome is a persistent impairment of comprehension caused by dementia, delirium, infection, injury, or substance-induced psychosis. Previous studies of organic brain syndrome and crime or aggression have either used hospital records to determine the psychiatric diagnoses of criminal offenders or used criminal records to determine the offense history of mentally ill individuals.
posted by DDay
I think that we are being altered and that some people are reacting to these disturbances in behavioural ways. How can we be exposed to so much and not be affected by any of it?
Originally posted by hogtie
As for Alzheimers and dementia, has the overall population in the nursing home risen %50-60?
I'm thinking that there are two factors to this rise and both involve medical care. 1) People are living longer, which means more people not dying younger and therefore suffering from more symptoms of progressing age,
Originally posted by GradyPhilpott
Your definition of OBS is correct and I did not mean to blur the issue. I meant only to include OBS in a constellation of physical causes for deviant behavior.
Stroke can affect people in different ways. It depends on the type of stroke, the area of the brain affected and the extent of the brain injury. Brain injury from a stroke can affect the senses, motor activity, speech and the ability to understand speech. It can also affect behavioral and thought patterns, memory and emotions. Paralysis or weakness on one side of the body is common.
Most of these problems can improve over time. In some patients they will go away completely.
How can a stroke affect emotions? Some areas of the brain produce emotions, just as other parts produce movement or allow us to see, hear, smell or taste. If these areas are injured by a stroke, a survivor may cry easily or have sudden mood swings, often for no apparent reason. This is called emotional lability. Laughing uncontrollably also may occur but isn't as common as crying. Depression is common as stroke survivors recover and as they come to terms with any impairment that doesn't fully go away.
How can a stroke affect perception? A stroke can also affect seeing, touching, moving and thinking...