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Under Turabi's leadership, Sudan offered residency to any Arab or Muslim. This policy allowed Osama Bin Laden to take up residence in Khartoum, along with Imad Mughniyah, the man believed to be responsible for the 1983 suicide bombing in Beirut that killed 241 U.S. Marines, and Ilich Ramirez Sanchez, the Venezuelan drug lord known as "Carlos the Jackal," who converted to Islam and pledged allegiance to bin Laden.
From the Sudan, bin Laden began actively working against the United States, starting no later than 1992. His stated goal was to drive U.S. forces out of the Persian Gulf. His preferred means for accomplishing that goal would be terrorism, specifically the unification of a diverse group of ragtag terrorist cabals into a global network.
Carlos the Jackal, once one of the world's most wanted men, said in remarks published from his French jail on Wednesday that anti-US groups mooted the idea of slamming planes into the World Trade Centre as early as 1991.
I (Carlos)attended an exciting meeting of cadres from anti-imperialist groups of different ideologies. In an informal, unofficial way the need was agreed to respond with bombings in the United States," he said in a handwritten answer to questions from the London-based Arabic daily al-Hayat
The martyr Mir Murtada Bhutto, secretary-general of the Pakistani Zulfikar organisation, suggested crashing into the World Trade Centre in New York with a plane, and not just the obvious targets in Washington," Illich Ramirez Sanchez, known as Carlos the Jackal, said.
Bin Laden established a headquarters for Al Qaeda in Khartoum, Sudan, in 1991, and established a series of businesses, including two investment companies, an agricultural company, a construction business and a transportation company, all of which were, "operated to provide income and support to Al Qaeda and to provide cover for the procurement of explosives, weapons and chemicals and for the travel of Al Qaeda operatives."
Osama bin Laden, who lived contemporaneously with Carlos in Khartoum, Sudan, until August 1994, emulated Carlos' united front tactics in the formation of his International Islamic Front for jihad against the US and Israel in 1998.
The united front initially formed by Carlos comprised the Red Army faction of Germany headed by Yohannes Weinrach, aka Peter, now in jail in Germany; the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, then headed by George Habash; another Palestinian group headed by one Ali, whose real name could not be established, and splinter groups of the Kurdish movement. The leaders of these groups had been given sanctuary by Syrian intelligence in Damascus, and they were running training camps in Lebanon and Yemen, where Islamic terrorist elements from many countries were trained by Carlos and Peter.
Monday 28 September 1998
Carlos the Jackal names bin Laden as successor
By Philip Jacobson in Paris
Carlos, who is serving a life sentence for three killings in France, said the bombings were the "historic continuity" of the campaign of terrorism he launched 25 years ago. He urged the Islamic radicals that bin Laden allegedly directs to step up operations "on land, at sea and in the air".
Guerrilla leader, Venezuelan-born Carlos the Jackal, or Illich Ramirez Sanchez, on August 31 2001 called from his French jail cell for worldwide attacks on Israel and the United States in support of a Palestinian uprising.
He addressed an open letter responding to Israel's assassination of Palestinian leader Abu Ali Mustafa, whom Carlos described as a "former comrade-in-arms".
Carlos called for a "protracted people's war, without boundaries."
"The killers of Abu Ali Mustafa came from Tel Aviv, the orders came from Washington," Carlos wrote. "The Yankee should beware, " he said.
1 October 1996
The Ramzi Yousef network is reported to have been aided by terrorists who had worked with the Red Brigade in Europe. In Sudan, Carlos, the famous Chilean terrorist, now in a French prison, is understood to have been a Ramzi contact.
They comprised primarily of Marxist groups and organizations organized along ethnic and religious lines. Several hard core European Marxist groups cooperated during the l98O's. The Combatant Communist Cells (CCC) of Belgium, Direct Action (AD) of France, and the Red Army Faction (RAF) of Germany allied to form the Anti Imperialist Allied Front. The front followed an anti NATO policy. Additionally, the Red Brigades (RB) of Italy also had contact with RAF and AD members. These groups, several of which were established by members trained by Palestinian terrorists, currently present little threat to the continent. Marxism seems to have lost its appeal there. Ominously though, Iranian government agents are reputed to have made contact with the remnants of some of those organizations during l994. One can speculate that Iran believes they could be useful to her cause in the future.
A top-level Indian intelligence official, now semi-retired, is telling French government contacts that the attack on their supertanker off the Yemeni coast last week was the work of former associates of Carlos the Jackal who have now signed up with al Qaida.
The celebrated Carlos, in a French prison since being snatched from a Sudanese hospital in 1994, along with his German colleague Johannes Weinrach of the Red Army Faktion, ran training camps in both Lebanon and Yemen. Carlos pioneered the loose system of a united front of terror associates that has been refined (and Islamicized) by Osama bin Laden into al Qaida. But Carlos remains an honored figured in these circles, particularly after his conversion to Islam while in Khartoum.