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OP/ED: ATSNN Fact File: Slovenia

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posted on Aug, 23 2005 @ 11:36 AM
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The Republic of Slovenia (Slovenian: Republika Slovenija) is a coastal sub-Alpine country in southern Central Europe bordering Italy to the west, the Adriatic Sea to the southwest, Croatia to the south and east, Hungary to the northeast, and Austria to the north. Slovenia was part of Yugoslavia from 1945 until gaining independence on 25 June 1991 (also a National Holiday, the Independance Day). It became a member of the European Union on 1 May 2004. It is also a member of the Council of Europe, NATO, and has observer status in La Francophonie.
 


First Some General Information:

Capital and Largest city: Ljubljana
Official languages: Slovenian, Italian, Hungarian
Area: Total 20,273 km2, Water 0.6%
Population (2005 est.): 2,011,070
Density: 96/km2
GDP: Total $43.26 billion, Per capita $21,695

As given by Enciklopedija Slovenije (Encyclopedia of Slovenia), traditional Slovenian regions, based on the former division of Slovenia on three crown lands (Carniola, Styria and Goriska) and their parts, are:

* Gorenjska (Upper Carniola)
* Stajerska (Styria)
* Prekmurje (Transmuraland)
* Koroska (Carinthia)
* Notranjska (Inner Carniola)
* Dolenjska (Lower Carniola)
* Goriska
* Slovenska Istra (Slovenian Istria)

The last two are usually considered together as Primorska (the Littoral Region). White Carniola (Bela krajina), otherwise part of Lower Carniola, is sometimes considered a separate region, as is Zasavje, which is otherwise a part of Upper and Lower Carniola and Styria.



Since the breakup of the former Yugoslavia, Slovenia has instituted a stable, multi-party, democratic political system, characterized by regular elections, a free press, and an excellent human rights record. By Constitution of Slovenia the country is a parliamentary democracy and a republic. Within its government, power is shared between a directly elected president, a prime minister, and a bicameral legislature (Parliament). Parliament is composed of the 90-member National Assembly—which takes the lead on virtually all legislative issues—and the National Council, a largely advisory body composed of representatives from social, economic, professional, and local interests. The Constitutional Court has the highest power of review of legislation to ensure its consistency with Slovenia's constitution. Its nine judges are elected for 9-year terms.






HEAD OF STATE


President of the Republic of Slovenia

The Slovenian Head of State is the president, who is elected by popular vote every 5 years. The Office of the president is responsible for Executing the functions of the president. The Office is composed of two major organisation units:

- Cabinet
- General Sector

Current president of Slovenia is Dr Janez Drnovsek. Dr Janez Drnovsek was sworn in as President of the Republic of Slovenia at the National Assembly on 22 December 2002, after he had presided for ten years over both the Government of the Republic of Slovenia and the leading parliamentary party, the Liberal Democracy of Slovenia. As president of the Liberal Democracy of Slovenia, he succeeded in leading the party to victory at the parliamentary elections three times, in 1992, 1996, and 2000. Dr Drnovsek is fluent in English, French, Spanish, and German.



Office of the President of Republic of Slovenia:

- Secretary General, in charge of Generel Sector of the Office: Dr Matjaz Nahtigal
- Secretary General Substitute: Divna Potocar
- Chief of Cabinet: Valentina Flander

Cabinet Members / Counselors:

- Counselor for Defence: Captain Ljubo Kranjc
- Counselor for Economy: Dr Barbara Fakin
- Counselor for International Relations: Ivo Vajgl, Dr Iztok Simoniti, Melita Gabric
- Counselor for Public Affairs: Kristina Bole
- Counselor for Amnesties, Decorations, Submissions and Complaints: Irena Kolak
- Counselor for Internal Politics: Maksimilijan Lavrinc
- Counselor for Informatics: Marko Hartman

President is elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 10 November and 1 December 2002 (next to be held in the fall of 2007).



Presidental Palace



EXECUTIVE AUTHORITY


Goverment of Republic of Slovenia

The Slovene constitutional system is based on the parliamentary form of government. This originates in the separation of legislative, executive and judicial powers.

The Government of the Republic of Slovenia (RS) is the executive body and, at the same time, the supreme body of the state administration. Thus the function of the Government is twofold: Executive-Political and Administrative. Its executive-political function involves mainly the execution of policies agreed by the National Assembly and the implementation of the laws and other regulations passed by the National Assembly. In accordance with the constitution and with the laws and other general acts of the National Assembly, the Government sets, directs and harmonises the implementation of state policies. As the highest body of the state administration, it issues regulations and passes legal, political, economic, financial, organisational and other measures, which are needed for the development of the state and the regulation of conditions in all the areas of the state’s jurisdiction.

As the highest body of state administration, the Government of the RS has, in accordance with the Constitution and the Law on Government, the following duties:

- it determines, directs and harmonises the implementation of state policies;
- it issues executive regulations and passes other legal, political, economic, financial and organisational measures in order to ensure the development of the state and the regulation of conditions in all areas of governmental activity;
- it proposes laws, the state budget, national programmes and other general acts, which determine the fundamental and long-term political directions of individual areas of Government, and which need to be passed by the National Assembly;
- it oversees the implementation of the legislation and other regulations passed by the National Assembly, as well as the complete activity of the state administration;
- it realises the rights and duties which refer to the RS as the founder of institutes, economic corporations and other organisations;
- it manages the fixed assets and other assets of the RS, unless there is a law relating specifically to an individual fixed asset, stating otherwise;
- it prepares a budget memorandum, in which it presents the basic goals and tasks of economic, social and budgetary policies;
- it passes organisational, personnel and other measures relating to the work of the Government, the ministries and the whole of the state administration;
- it represents the RS as a legal entity, when not otherwise determined by a special law.


Prime Minister

The Prime Minister leads and directs the work of the Government, ensures the unity of its political and administrative direction, co-ordinates the work of the ministries, represents the Government and calls for and presides over its sessions.

The Office of the Prime Minister Main Areas of Activity:

Co-ordination and special tasks for the Prime Minister:
• carrying out the groundwork for the measures and decisions taken by the Prime Minister in leading and guiding the work of the Government and for the harmonisation of the work of ministries in the implementation of the political and administrative guidelines of the Government;
• carrying out the technical and organisational groundwork for the Prime Minister’s co-operation with the President of the RS, with representatives of other states, and with international organisations and other institutions;
• carrying out the technical and organisational groundwork for the Prime Minister’s co-operation with representatives of other state bodies, civil society organisations, other institutions and the media;
• monitoring the implementation of binding instructions given to ministers by the Prime Minister in relation to tasks deriving from the guidelines and resolutions of the Government, which are important to the work of the relevant ministries;
• organising inter-ministerial co-operation on issues within the responsibility of the ministries, as well as the preparation of standpoints for the solution of controversial issues between ministries;
• co-ordinating and performing tasks for strategic councils, ministerial counsellors and state secretaries in the Office;
• co-ordinating and supervising the work of the police officers responsible for protecting the Prime Minister;
• organising and ensuring administrative-technical support for the functioning of the Office;
• performing other duties as instructed by the Prime Minister.

State secretaries in the Office of the Prime Minister:

- Franc Puksic
- Aleksander Zorn
- Anton Rous
- Marcel Koprol
- Miroslav Luci


Current Prime Minister of Slovenia is Janez Jansa. On 9 November 2004, Janez Janša, the nominated candidate for the office of prime minister of the new Slovene government, was elected Prime Minister of the Government of the Republic of Slovenia with 57 deputy votes.




Secretary-General

The Secretary-General's Office performs coordination and special tasks for the Government and is headed by the Secretary-General of the Government. The Office of the Government Secretary-General functions as a Government service. This office is headed by the Secretary-General, who is appointed and dismissed by the Government on the proposal of the Prime Minister. Under instruction from the Prime Minister, the Secretary-General attends to the preparation of Government sessions and the implementation of its decisions, and performs other tasks in connection with the organisation of work in the Government and its services. His function ceases through dismissal, resignation or upon termination of the function of the Prime Minister.


Ministries / Ministers of Slovenian Republic

- Ministry of Finance: Dr Andrej Bajuk

- Ministry of Interior: Dragutin Mate

- Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Dr Dimitrij Rupel

- Ministry of Justice: Dr Lovro Sturm

- Ministry of Defence: Karl Erjavec

- Ministry of Labour, Family and Social Affairs: Janez Drobnic, MA

- Ministry of Economy: Andrej Vizjak, MA

- Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Food: Marija Lukacic

- Ministry of Culture: Dr Vasko Simoniti

- Ministry of the Environment and Spatial Planning: Janez Podobnik, MD

- Ministry of Transport: Janez Bozic, MA

- Ministry of Education and Sport: Dr Milan Zver

- Ministry of Health: Andrej Brucan, MD

- Ministry of Public Administration: Dr Gregor Virant

- Ministry of Higher Education, Science and Technology: Dr Jure Zupan

- Office for Local Self-Government and Regional Policy: Dr Ivan Zagar




LEGISLATIVE AUTHORITY

National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia

The bicameral Slovenian parliament consists of the National Assembly or Drzavni zbor, and the Drzavni svet or National Council. The National Assembly has 90 seats, which are partially filled with directly elected representatives, and partially with proportionally elected representatives (two seats reserved for autochthonous Hungarian and Italian minorities). The National Council has 40 seats, and is made up of representatives of social, economic, professional and local interest groups. Parliamentary elections are held every four years, while National Council members are elected indirectly every 5 years.



The Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia adopted the Constitution of the Republic of Slovenia on 23 December 1991 thus providing the basis for a new legal system founded in particular on the respect of human rights and fundamental freedoms, the principles of the rule of law and social state, the parliamentary system and the principle of the separation of legislative, executive and judicial powers.

Pursuant to Article 171 of the Constitution of the Republic of Slovenia, the National Assembly at the session held on 14 July 1997 adopted the Constitutional Act Amending Article 68 of the Constitution of the Republic of Slovenia.

At the session held on 25 July 2000, the National Assembly adopted the Ordinance on the Promulgation of the Constitutional Act Amending Article 80 of the Constitution of the Republic of Slovenia pursuant to Article 171 of the Constitution of the Republic of Slovenia.

Tour of the Parliament Building


Deputy Groups in the National Assembly

In Slovenia, elections in the National Assembly are held in eight voting units, each of which further divides into 11 districts. Different candidates apply in each of the eighty-eight districts. From each of eight units 11 deputies get elected, however not necessarily one deputy from each district (from some districts nobody gets elected, from others up to four candidates enter the parliament). Deputy's mandates are distributed at two levels: at the level of the voting unit and at the level of the state. In practice, at the level of voting units two thirds of mandates get allotted, while one third gets allotted at the level of the state. In this manner, 88 mandates get distributed. The remaining two seats are assigned to the representatives of the Italian and Hungarian minorities, which get elected separately (in the ninth and tenth voting units) by the Borda count. Altogether, 90 deputies get elected in the parliament. The election threshold for a party to enter the parliament is four per cent.

Deputy Groups in the National Assembly:





Here are other Political Parties active in Slovenia, but do not have deputies in the National Assembly:



National Council of the Republic of Slovenia

The National Council is, in accordance with the Constitution, the representative of social, economic, professional and local interest groups. The forty-member National Council comprises 22 representatives of local interests, six representatives of non-commercial activities four representatives of employers and four of employees and four representatives of farmers, crafts and trades and independent professionals.

Some of the National Council’s strengths arise from its actual composition. Today, as political parties increase their influence on the functioning of the state, representative democracy is entering a crisis. The traditional ideal of a representative system is disappearing. Members of parliaments can only rarely defy the will of party lobbies. Given the complex nature of state structures, the popular will of the voters cannot be directly expressed and is always mediated by political parties. The influence of political parties is weaker within the National Council. Parties can only become involved in the election of representatives of the local interest groups that comprise over half of the National Council’s members.

The National Council of the Republic of Slovenia is the upper house of the Slovenian parliament. This is not expressly stated in the Slovenian Constitution but may be derived from constitutional theory, the international comparison of its competences and the role that the National Council performs. The first decade of its existence has demonstrated the justification and rationality of the upper chamber’s function within Slovenia’s constitutional system. It has proven its capacity to fulfil its constitutionally defined competences and shown its ability to operate in spheres are not expressly delegated to the Council in the Constitution, yet which are also not forbidden. It has affirmed its deep-seated and direct relations with citizens and civil society, which form the basis of a representative democracy.

The National Council comprises 40 members representing social, economic, professional, and local interests. According to the Constitution, NC is composed of:

- four representatives of employers
- four representatives of employees
- four representatives of farmers, tradespeople and independent professions
- six representatives of non-commercial activities
- twenty two representatives of local interests




JUDICIARY

Judiciary Authority is represented by: Supreme Court (judges are elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the Judicial Council); Constitutional Court (judges elected for nine-year terms by the National Assembly and nominated by the president).


Supreme Court of the Republic of Slovenia

The Supreme Court of the Republic of Slovenia is the highest appellate court in the state.
It functions primarily as a court of cassation. It is a court of appellate jurisdiction in criminal and civil cases, in commercial lawsuits, in cases of administrative review and in labour and social security disputes. It is the court of the third instance in almost all the cases within its jurisdiction. The grounds of appeal to the Supreme Court (defined as extraordinary legal remedies in Slovenian procedural laws) are therefore limited to issues of substantive law and to the most severe breaches of procedure.

Based on the principle of dividing authorities into branches with legislative, executive, and judicial powers, the Constitution of the Republic of Slovenia defines the task of the judicial branch generally as being to decide upon every person’s rights and obligations. Such decisions are entrusted to independent, neutral courts established by law. The establishment of extraordinary courts, and in peacetime of courts martial, is forbidden. In addition to these basic provisions, the constitution determines that the judges shall independently exercise their duties in accordance with the constitution and with the law, and lays out the basic principles on the organisation and jurisdiction of the courts, the participation of citizens in the performance of judicial functions, the permanence of office of judges, the election of judges, the Judicial Council, the termination and dismissal from office of a judge, the incompatibility of judicial office and judicial immunity.

Laws in English


Supreme State Prosecutor's Office of the Republic of Slovenia

In accordance with the law, the Supreme State Prosecutor’s Office is the highest prosecutor’s office in the country. Supreme state prosecutors must be a model of professionalism, impartiality, honesty and conscientiousness. The decisions and legal positions of the Supreme State Prosecutor’s Office represent a substantial contribution to ensuring the rule of law.


Constitutional Court of the Republic of Slovenia

The constitutional position of the independent and autonomous body
exercising constitutional review was detailed by the Constitutional Court Act, which came into force on 2 April 1994. Thereby the procedure for adjudication in cases falling under the jurisdiction of the Constitutional Court, the procedure for the election of Constitutional Court judges and its President, and the position of the judges, were determined in more detail. Stemming from the principled position that the Constitutional Court is in relation to other State bodies an independent and autonomous State body, the Act determined that funds for its work be provided by the National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia on the Court's proposal, and that the Court alone decides on their expenditure. The Act vested in the Court the authority to regulate its internal organisation and work by its own acts. Among them the Rules of Procedure of the Constitutional Court are the most important, which regulate in more detail the organisation of work and the mode of the Court's operation.


Court of Audit of the Republic of Slovenia

In accordance with the Slovenian Constitution the Court of Audit of the Republic of Slovenia is the highest body for supervising state accounts, the state budget and all public spending in Slovenia. The Constitution further provides that the Court of Audit is independent in the performance of its duties and bound by the Constitution and law. The Court of Audit Act also defines that the acts with which Court of Audit exercises its powers of audit cannot be challenged before the courts or other state bodies.

The Court of Audit cannot be categorised within any of the three branches of power, legislative, executive or judicial. Its independent status is guaranteed in several respects by the Constitution and the law:

* The Court of Audit exercises its powers entirely independently. It is responsible for adopting its own programme of work. No body, institution or other entity may order it to carry out tasks nor give it instructions as to how to perform tasks, what sort of audit it should carry out or what it should audit. Pursuant to the Court of Audit Act, the deputies and working bodies of the National Assembly, the government, ministries and local authority bodies may propose that an audit be carried out.

* For covering the costs of its activities the Court of Audit proposes a financial plan to the National Assembly, which approves the required working funds. The Court of Audit is an independent budget user and receives budget funding under a special part of the budget, but it must use the funds in accordance with the provisions of the law regulating the implementation of the budget.




OMBUDSMAN

Human rights ombudsman is in relation towards the state bodies, autonomous and independent agency.

In accordance with the law, the Human Rights Ombudsman regulates its organisation and work in rules and regulations and other general enactments. In the rules and regulations the ombudsman has provided that a service of the Human Rights Ombudsman is organised within the Office of the Human Rights Ombudsman, which is headed by the general secretary of the ombudsman.

On February 21st 2001 a two-thirds majority of all deputies in the National Assembly elected, upon the proposal of the President of the Republic of Slovenia, Mr. Matjaz Hanzek (73 of 90 votes) as the second Slovene Human Rights Ombudsman, for a period of six years. The mandate of the first Slovene Human Rights Ombudsman Mr. Ivan Bizjak expired on September 29th 2000.

The Ombudsman has four Deputies, appointed also for six years by the National Assembly, on the proposal of the Ombudsman. The Deputy Ombudsmen are Mr. Ales Butala, Mr. Tone Dolcic, Mr. France Jamnik and Mr. Jernej Rovsek.

The service of the Ombudsman shall be organized in the Office of the Human Rights Ombudsman, which consist of The Expert Service of the Ombudsman and The Secretary General's Office, General Secretary is Mrs. Bojana Kvas.

Official Site




Other Offices, Agencies and Institutions




Councils




Local Self-Government





posted on Aug, 23 2005 @ 11:45 AM
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Well it took me some times, but I finnaly did it.

I think thats a nice Fact File.

If some Pictures are not seen, becuse they are on Slovenian servers, please let me know!

Thank You!




posted on Aug, 23 2005 @ 11:49 AM
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bown down


we are not worthy



posted on Aug, 23 2005 @ 12:30 PM
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Interesting read souljah, so ethnically are you more austrian-hungary or slavic? (your country)

[edit on 23-8-2005 by XphilesPhan]



posted on Aug, 23 2005 @ 12:33 PM
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Great job, Souljah! I look forward to reading this in more detail soon.



-koji K.



posted on Aug, 23 2005 @ 01:23 PM
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Originally posted by nukunuku
bown down


we are not worthy

Thanks!


And Yes We are Worthy!




Originally posted by XphilesPhan
Interesting read souljah, so ethnically are you more austrian-hungary or slavic? (your country)

We are a Slavic Nation but have been under the Rule of Austrio-Hungarin Empire and before that under the rule of Habsburgs.

But - The Slavic Duchy of Carantania, the first Slovenian state and the first stable Slavic state, was formed already in the 7th century! And it was quite bigger then the Slovenia today - basicly occupied half of Austria today. It was the First Independant State of Slovenians and Slavs.



Later in the start of the 20th century we were part of Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, which was later the Kingdon of Yugoslavia, which was the basis for the Former Yugoslavia.



Originally posted by koji_K
Great job, Souljah! I look forward to reading this in more detail soon.



Thank You Koji!




posted on Aug, 23 2005 @ 05:36 PM
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Ok Souljah now you have to bring us some juicy Slovenian news items! Great Op/Ed thanks for bringing it to ATSNN



posted on Aug, 23 2005 @ 05:55 PM
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Originally posted by subz
Ok Souljah now you have to bring us some juicy Slovenian news items! Great Op/Ed thanks for bringing it to ATSNN

Oh Man, don't even make me Start with the "Dirt" on our Politicians!


I hope it sheds some light on our Country.

Thanks subz!



BTW: why are the letters here before the title written like this: (op/ed), yet others have OP/ED without the ()?



posted on Aug, 23 2005 @ 06:09 PM
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Originally posted by Souljah
Thanks subz!

No problem buddy



Originally posted by Souljah
BTW: why are the letters here before the title written like this: (op/ed), yet others have OP/ED without the ()?

I noticed that too. Did you change it from a normal submission to an Op/Ed submission?



Its a different form to the standard submission.



posted on Aug, 24 2005 @ 05:18 AM
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Yes I used that OP/ED form to begin with in the "Send News Center".

After the Upgrade I can't EDIT the original post anymore? There is a mistake...


[edit on 24/8/05 by Souljah]



posted on Aug, 24 2005 @ 06:05 AM
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A great piece of work.

Do you know any data on the religion of the population?



posted on Aug, 24 2005 @ 06:11 AM
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Originally posted by Riwka
A great piece of work.

Do you know any data on the religion of the population?

I knew I Forgot Something!

Thanks!





Slovenians are predominantly Roman Catholic, though the country also has a small number of Protestants, Orthodox Christians, Muslims, and Jews.

Ethnic groups: Slovenian 88%, Croat 3%, Serb 2%, Bosniak 1%, Yugoslav 0.6%, Hungarian 0.4%, other 5% (1991)

Religions: Roman Catholic 70.8% (including Uniate 2%), Lutheran 1%, Muslim 1%, atheist 4.3%, other 22.9%




[edit on 24/8/05 by Souljah]



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