The Republic of Slovenia (Slovenian: Republika Slovenija) is a coastal sub-Alpine country in southern Central Europe bordering Italy to the west, the
Adriatic Sea to the southwest, Croatia to the south and east, Hungary to the northeast, and Austria to the north. Slovenia was part of Yugoslavia from
1945 until gaining independence on 25 June 1991 (also a National Holiday, the Independance Day). It became a member of the European Union on 1 May
2004. It is also a member of the Council of Europe, NATO, and has observer status in La Francophonie.
First Some General Information:
Capital and Largest city: Ljubljana
Official languages: Slovenian, Italian, Hungarian
Area: Total 20,273 km2, Water 0.6%
Population (2005 est.): 2,011,070
GDP: Total $43.26 billion, Per capita $21,695
As given by Enciklopedija Slovenije (Encyclopedia of Slovenia), traditional Slovenian regions, based on the former division of Slovenia on three crown
lands (Carniola, Styria and Goriska) and their parts, are:
* Gorenjska (Upper Carniola)
* Stajerska (Styria)
* Prekmurje (Transmuraland)
* Koroska (Carinthia)
* Notranjska (Inner Carniola)
* Dolenjska (Lower Carniola)
* Slovenska Istra (Slovenian Istria)
The last two are usually considered together as Primorska (the Littoral Region). White Carniola (Bela krajina), otherwise part of Lower Carniola, is
sometimes considered a separate region, as is Zasavje, which is otherwise a part of Upper and Lower Carniola and Styria.
Since the breakup of the former Yugoslavia, Slovenia has instituted a stable, multi-party, democratic political system, characterized by regular
elections, a free press, and an excellent human rights record. By Constitution of Slovenia the country is a parliamentary democracy and a republic.
Within its government, power is shared between a directly elected president, a prime minister, and a bicameral legislature (Parliament). Parliament is
composed of the 90-member National Assembly—which takes the lead on virtually all legislative issues—and the National Council, a largely advisory
body composed of representatives from social, economic, professional, and local interests. The Constitutional Court has the highest power of review of
legislation to ensure its consistency with Slovenia's constitution. Its nine judges are elected for 9-year terms.
HEAD OF STATE
President of the Republic of Slovenia
The Slovenian Head of State
is the president, who is elected by popular vote every 5 years. The Office of the president is responsible for
Executing the functions of the president. The Office is composed of two major organisation units:
- General Sector
Current president of Slovenia is Dr Janez Drnovsek
. Dr Janez Drnovsek was sworn in as President of
the Republic of Slovenia at the National Assembly on 22 December 2002, after he had presided for ten years over both the Government of the Republic of
Slovenia and the leading parliamentary party, the Liberal Democracy of Slovenia. As president of the Liberal Democracy of Slovenia, he succeeded in
leading the party to victory at the parliamentary elections three times, in 1992, 1996, and 2000. Dr Drnovsek is fluent in English, French, Spanish,
Office of the President of Republic of Slovenia:
- Secretary General, in charge of Generel Sector of the Office: Dr Matjaz Nahtigal
- Secretary General Substitute: Divna Potocar
- Chief of Cabinet: Valentina Flander
Cabinet Members / Counselors:
- Counselor for Defence: Captain Ljubo Kranjc
- Counselor for Economy: Dr Barbara Fakin
- Counselor for International Relations: Ivo Vajgl, Dr Iztok Simoniti, Melita Gabric
- Counselor for Public Affairs: Kristina Bole
- Counselor for Amnesties, Decorations, Submissions and Complaints: Irena Kolak
- Counselor for Internal Politics: Maksimilijan Lavrinc
- Counselor for Informatics: Marko Hartman
President is elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 10 November and 1 December 2002 (next to be held in the fall of
Goverment of Republic of Slovenia
The Slovene constitutional system is based on the parliamentary form of government. This originates in the separation of legislative, executive and
The Government of the Republic of Slovenia (RS)
is the executive body and, at the same time, the
supreme body of the state administration. Thus the function of the Government is twofold: Executive-Political
executive-political function involves mainly the execution of policies agreed by the National Assembly and the implementation of the laws and other
regulations passed by the National Assembly. In accordance with the constitution and with the laws and other general acts of the National Assembly,
the Government sets, directs and harmonises the implementation of state policies. As the highest body of the state administration, it issues
regulations and passes legal, political, economic, financial, organisational and other measures, which are needed for the development of the state and
the regulation of conditions in all the areas of the state’s jurisdiction.
As the highest body of state administration, the Government of the RS has, in accordance with the Constitution and the Law on Government, the
- it determines, directs and harmonises the implementation of state policies;
- it issues executive regulations and passes other legal, political, economic, financial and organisational measures in order to ensure the
development of the state and the regulation of conditions in all areas of governmental activity;
- it proposes laws, the state budget, national programmes and other general acts, which determine the fundamental and long-term political directions
of individual areas of Government, and which need to be passed by the National Assembly;
- it oversees the implementation of the legislation and other regulations passed by the National Assembly, as well as the complete activity of the
- it realises the rights and duties which refer to the RS as the founder of institutes, economic corporations and other organisations;
- it manages the fixed assets and other assets of the RS, unless there is a law relating specifically to an individual fixed asset, stating
- it prepares a budget memorandum, in which it presents the basic goals and tasks of economic, social and budgetary policies;
- it passes organisational, personnel and other measures relating to the work of the Government, the ministries and the whole of the state
- it represents the RS as a legal entity, when not otherwise determined by a special law.
The Prime Minister leads and directs the work of the Government, ensures the unity of its political and administrative direction, co-ordinates the
work of the ministries, represents the Government and calls for and presides over its sessions.
The Office of the Prime Minister Main Areas of Activity:
Co-ordination and special tasks for the Prime Minister:
• carrying out the groundwork for the measures and decisions taken by the Prime Minister in leading and guiding the work of the Government and for
the harmonisation of the work of ministries in the implementation of the political and administrative guidelines of the Government;
• carrying out the technical and organisational groundwork for the Prime Minister’s co-operation with the President of the RS, with
representatives of other states, and with international organisations and other institutions;
• carrying out the technical and organisational groundwork for the Prime Minister’s co-operation with representatives of other state bodies, civil
society organisations, other institutions and the media;
• monitoring the implementation of binding instructions given to ministers by the Prime Minister in relation to tasks deriving from the guidelines
and resolutions of the Government, which are important to the work of the relevant ministries;
• organising inter-ministerial co-operation on issues within the responsibility of the ministries, as well as the preparation of standpoints for the
solution of controversial issues between ministries;
• co-ordinating and performing tasks for strategic councils, ministerial counsellors and state secretaries in the Office;
• co-ordinating and supervising the work of the police officers responsible for protecting the Prime Minister;
• organising and ensuring administrative-technical support for the functioning of the Office;
• performing other duties as instructed by the Prime Minister.
State secretaries in the Office of the Prime Minister:
- Franc Puksic
- Aleksander Zorn
- Anton Rous
- Marcel Koprol
- Miroslav Luci
Current Prime Minister of Slovenia is Janez Jansa
. On 9 November 2004, Janez Janša, the nominated
candidate for the office of prime minister of the new Slovene government, was elected Prime Minister of the Government of the Republic of Slovenia
with 57 deputy votes.
The Secretary-General's Office performs coordination and special tasks for the Government and is headed by the Secretary-General of the Government.
The Office of the Government Secretary-General functions as a Government service. This office is headed by the Secretary-General, who is appointed and
dismissed by the Government on the proposal of the Prime Minister. Under instruction from the Prime Minister, the Secretary-General attends to the
preparation of Government sessions and the implementation of its decisions, and performs other tasks in connection with the organisation of work in
the Government and its services. His function ceases through dismissal, resignation or upon termination of the function of the Prime Minister.
Ministries / Ministers of Slovenian Republic
- Ministry of Finance
: Dr Andrej Bajuk
- Ministry of Interior
: Dragutin Mate
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs
: Dr Dimitrij Rupel
- Ministry of Justice
: Dr Lovro Sturm
- Ministry of Defence
: Karl Erjavec
- Ministry of Labour, Family and Social Affairs
: Janez Drobnic, MA
- Ministry of Economy
: Andrej Vizjak, MA
- Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Food
: Marija Lukacic
- Ministry of Culture
: Dr Vasko Simoniti
- Ministry of the Environment and Spatial Planning
: Janez Podobnik, MD
- Ministry of Transport
: Janez Bozic, MA
- Ministry of Education and Sport
: Dr Milan Zver
- Ministry of Health
: Andrej Brucan, MD
- Ministry of Public Administration
: Dr Gregor Virant
- Ministry of Higher Education, Science and Technology
: Dr Jure Zupan
- Office for Local Self-Government and Regional Policy
: Dr Ivan Zagar
National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia
The bicameral Slovenian parliament consists of the National Assembly or Drzavni zbor, and the Drzavni svet or National Council. The National Assembly
has 90 seats, which are partially filled with directly elected representatives, and partially with proportionally elected representatives (two seats
reserved for autochthonous Hungarian and Italian minorities). The National Council has 40 seats, and is made up of representatives of social,
economic, professional and local interest groups. Parliamentary elections are held every four years, while National Council members are elected
indirectly every 5 years.
The Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia adopted the Constitution
of the Republic of Slovenia
on 23 December 1991 thus providing the basis for a new legal system founded in particular on the respect of human
rights and fundamental freedoms, the principles of the rule of law and social state, the parliamentary system and the principle of the separation of
legislative, executive and judicial powers.
Pursuant to Article 171 of the Constitution of the Republic of Slovenia, the National Assembly at the session held on 14 July 1997 adopted the
Constitutional Act Amending Article 68 of the Constitution of the Republic of Slovenia.
At the session held on 25 July 2000, the National Assembly adopted the Ordinance on the Promulgation of the Constitutional Act Amending Article 80 of
the Constitution of the Republic of Slovenia pursuant to Article 171 of the Constitution of the Republic of Slovenia.
Tour of the Parliament Building
Deputy Groups in the National Assembly
In Slovenia, elections in the National Assembly are held in eight voting units, each of which further divides into 11 districts. Different candidates
apply in each of the eighty-eight districts. From each of eight units 11 deputies get elected, however not necessarily one deputy from each district
(from some districts nobody gets elected, from others up to four candidates enter the parliament). Deputy's mandates are distributed at two levels:
at the level of the voting unit and at the level of the state. In practice, at the level of voting units two thirds of mandates get allotted, while
one third gets allotted at the level of the state. In this manner, 88 mandates get distributed. The remaining two seats are assigned to the
representatives of the Italian and Hungarian minorities, which get elected separately (in the ninth and tenth voting units) by the Borda count.
Altogether, 90 deputies get elected in the parliament. The election threshold for a party to enter the parliament is four per cent.
Deputy Groups in the National Assembly:
- Democratic Party of Pensioners of Slovenia (Demokraticna stranka upokojencev Slovenije, DeSUS) Karl Erjavec,
chairman; 4 deputies
- Liberal Democracy of Slovenia (Liberalna demokracija Slovenije, LDS) Anton Rop, chairman; 23 deputies
- New Slovenia Christian People's Party (Nova Slovenija Krscanska ljudska
stranka, NSi) Andrej Bajuk, chairman; 9 deputies
- Slovenian Democratic Party (Slovenska demokratska stranka, SDS) Janez Jansa, chairman; 29 deputies
- Slovenian National Party (Slovenska nacionalna stranka, SNS) Zmago Jelincic, chairman; 6 deputies
- Slovenian People's Party (Slovenska ljudska stranka, SLS) Janez Podobnik, chairman; 7 deputies
- Social Democrats (Socialni demokrati, SD) Borut Pahor, chairman; 10 deputies
- Representatives of the National Minorities; (2 deputies)
Here are other Political Parties active in Slovenia, but do not have deputies in the National Assembly:
National Council of the Republic of Slovenia
The National Council is, in accordance with the Constitution, the representative of social, economic, professional and local interest groups. The
forty-member National Council comprises 22 representatives of local interests, six representatives of non-commercial activities four representatives
of employers and four of employees and four representatives of farmers, crafts and trades and independent professionals.
Some of the National Council’s strengths arise from its actual composition. Today, as political parties increase their influence on the functioning
of the state, representative democracy is entering a crisis. The traditional ideal of a representative system is disappearing. Members of parliaments
can only rarely defy the will of party lobbies. Given the complex nature of state structures, the popular will of the voters cannot be directly
expressed and is always mediated by political parties. The influence of political parties is weaker within the National Council. Parties can only
become involved in the election of representatives of the local interest groups that comprise over half of the National Council’s members.
The National Council of the Republic of Slovenia
is the upper house of the Slovenian parliament. This
is not expressly stated in the Slovenian Constitution but may be derived from constitutional theory, the international comparison of its competences
and the role that the National Council performs. The first decade of its existence has demonstrated the justification and rationality of the upper
chamber’s function within Slovenia’s constitutional system. It has proven its capacity to fulfil its constitutionally defined competences and
shown its ability to operate in spheres are not expressly delegated to the Council in the Constitution, yet which are also not forbidden. It has
affirmed its deep-seated and direct relations with citizens and civil society, which form the basis of a representative democracy.
The National Council comprises 40 members representing social, economic, professional, and local interests. According to the Constitution, NC is
- four representatives of employers
- four representatives of employees
- four representatives of farmers, tradespeople and independent professions
- six representatives of non-commercial activities
- twenty two representatives of local interests
Judiciary Authority is represented by: Supreme Court (judges are elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the Judicial Council);
Constitutional Court (judges elected for nine-year terms by the National Assembly and nominated by the president).
Supreme Court of the Republic of Slovenia
The Supreme Court of the Republic of Slovenia
is the highest appellate court in the state.
It functions primarily as a court of cassation. It is a court of appellate jurisdiction in criminal and civil cases, in commercial lawsuits, in cases
of administrative review and in labour and social security disputes. It is the court of the third instance in almost all the cases within its
jurisdiction. The grounds of appeal to the Supreme Court (defined as extraordinary legal remedies in Slovenian procedural laws) are therefore limited
to issues of substantive law and to the most severe breaches of procedure.
Based on the principle of dividing authorities into branches with legislative, executive, and judicial powers, the Constitution of the Republic of
Slovenia defines the task of the judicial branch generally as being to decide upon every person’s rights and obligations. Such decisions are
entrusted to independent, neutral courts established by law. The establishment of extraordinary courts, and in peacetime of courts martial, is
forbidden. In addition to these basic provisions, the constitution determines that the judges shall independently exercise their duties in accordance
with the constitution and with the law, and lays out the basic principles on the organisation and jurisdiction of the courts, the participation of
citizens in the performance of judicial functions, the permanence of office of judges, the election of judges, the Judicial Council, the termination
and dismissal from office of a judge, the incompatibility of judicial office and judicial immunity.
Laws in English
Supreme State Prosecutor's Office of the Republic of Slovenia
In accordance with the law, the Supreme State Prosecutor’s Office
is the highest prosecutor’s office
in the country. Supreme state prosecutors must be a model of professionalism, impartiality, honesty and conscientiousness. The decisions and legal
positions of the Supreme State Prosecutor’s Office represent a substantial contribution to ensuring the rule of law.
Constitutional Court of the Republic of Slovenia
The constitutional position of the independent and autonomous body
exercising constitutional review was detailed by the Constitutional Court Act, which came into force on 2 April 1994. Thereby the procedure for
adjudication in cases falling under the jurisdiction of the Constitutional Court
, the procedure
for the election of Constitutional Court judges and its President, and the position of the judges, were determined in more detail. Stemming from the
principled position that the Constitutional Court is in relation to other State bodies an independent and autonomous State body, the Act determined
that funds for its work be provided by the National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia on the Court's proposal, and that the Court alone decides on
their expenditure. The Act vested in the Court the authority to regulate its internal organisation and work by its own acts. Among them the Rules of
Procedure of the Constitutional Court are the most important, which regulate in more detail the organisation of work and the mode of the Court's
Court of Audit of the Republic of Slovenia
In accordance with the Slovenian Constitution the Court of Audit of the Republic of Slovenia
highest body for supervising state accounts, the state budget and all public spending in Slovenia. The Constitution further provides that the Court of
Audit is independent in the performance of its duties and bound by the Constitution and law. The Court of Audit Act also defines that the acts with
which Court of Audit exercises its powers of audit cannot be challenged before the courts or other state bodies.
The Court of Audit cannot be categorised within any of the three branches of power, legislative, executive or judicial. Its independent status is
guaranteed in several respects by the Constitution and the law:
* The Court of Audit exercises its powers entirely independently. It is responsible for adopting its own programme of work. No body, institution or
other entity may order it to carry out tasks nor give it instructions as to how to perform tasks, what sort of audit it should carry out or what it
should audit. Pursuant to the Court of Audit Act, the deputies and working bodies of the National Assembly, the government, ministries and local
authority bodies may propose that an audit be carried out.
* For covering the costs of its activities the Court of Audit proposes a financial plan to the National Assembly, which approves the required working
funds. The Court of Audit is an independent budget user and receives budget funding under a special part of the budget, but it must use the funds in
accordance with the provisions of the law regulating the implementation of the budget.
Human rights ombudsman is in relation towards the state bodies, autonomous and independent agency.
In accordance with the law, the Human Rights Ombudsman regulates its organisation and work in rules and regulations and other general enactments. In
the rules and regulations the ombudsman has provided that a service of the Human Rights Ombudsman is organised within the Office of the Human Rights
Ombudsman, which is headed by the general secretary of the ombudsman.
On February 21st 2001 a two-thirds majority of all deputies in the National Assembly elected, upon the proposal of the President of the Republic of
Slovenia, Mr. Matjaz Hanzek (73 of 90 votes) as the second Slovene Human Rights Ombudsman, for a period of six years. The mandate of the first
Slovene Human Rights Ombudsman Mr. Ivan Bizjak expired on September 29th 2000.
The Ombudsman has four Deputies, appointed also for six years by the National Assembly, on the proposal of the Ombudsman. The Deputy Ombudsmen are Mr.
Ales Butala, Mr. Tone Dolcic, Mr. France Jamnik and Mr. Jernej Rovsek.
The service of the Ombudsman shall be organized in the Office of the Human Rights Ombudsman, which consist of The Expert Service of the Ombudsman and
The Secretary General's Office, General Secretary is Mrs. Bojana Kvas.
Other Offices, Agencies and Institutions