Evolution is theorized to work through step-by-step mutations to add new functions to an organism. As Darwin admitted himself:
So, if we can find examples of functions that rely on other functions, organs that relies on another organs, cells that rely on other cells, etc, then
we can demonstrate clearly that evolutionary theory is invalid. The examples I am about to show are some of the countless mechanisms in biological
organisms that fall under this category called "irreducibly complex".
The skunk's spray involves at least two known chemicals: (E )-2-butene-1-thiol and 3-methyl-1-butanethiol. So already we run into the dilemma of
irreducible complexity. Even if the skunk managed to randomly create one of these chemicals, it would be useless without the other! The smell of a
skunk spray requires these two chemicals to be mixed to create the atrocious odor. These chemicals would also have to be properly separated so they
didn't mix inside the gland.
As if that weren't difficult enough, the skunk would also have to have this gland hard-wired to the fear sections in its brain. If it were improperly
wired, the skunk could either be firing the odor all the time, or not at all. Neurological circuits do not simply happen that easy either. Even
intelligently guided surgeons cannot repair a severed spine. So how could random mutations be able to wire this gland to the proper fear centers in
the skunk's brain? Because keep in mind, the gland, even if it managed to get the proper chemicals, is useless, or even harmful, without proper brain
A Mosquito Bite
These infernal pests have a most devious little syringe used to suck blood from its victims. Scientists are even using the design of the mosquito to
create ideal syringes. The mosquito bite is also irreducibly complex on multiple levels:
1) it inserts its proboscis by vibrating it at a 15Hz frequency to allow it to pierce the skin
2) it releases a numbing agent to make the victim unaware of the blood vessel insertion
3) Once numb, the tip of the mosquito's proboscis searches and enters a blood vessel by vibrating at a 5Hz frequency.
Note that all this requires intricate muscle control to properly get through the skin without alerting the victim, and also an insertion tube that
allows the numbing agent to come from local glands. There is also the lighter-than-a-feather landing that the mosquito performs with its super thin
So think for your self on this one. How could one mutation have allowed all of these necessary functions to arise at once? They would not have come to
be sequentially, because they would be useless without the other functions. Even if by miracle all of these came to be for the mosquito to draw blood
from a victim, it would be useless if the mosquito couldn't digest blood! Also, if the mosquito didn't have the proper sensory mechanisms, it would
not be able to find a victim either.
So given these difficulties, mosquitoes could not have come to be by sequential step-by-step mutations. These creatures of Cain breed in still water,
and therefore love victims that resemble stagnancy.
Venus Fly Trap
Before I explain in my own words, think for your self why this organism would be irreducibly complex. Thinking for your self is key to looking past
the deception of evolutionary theory. Knowing biological concepts and asking how they could have formed through sequential modification will show you
clearly that life could not have formed according to this theory.
The Venus fly trap has a vast array of chemicals to attract flies. Sensation received when a fly lands causes an electrical current to run through
each lobe to make a pressure gradient that causes the trap to close on its victim. Then another slew of chemicals is released to allow digestion.
So even if a plant randomly mutated an ability to sense the fly landing on it, it would also have to have a mechanism to close its lobes, and it would
also have to have the proper chemicals to allow digestion of a fly. There are also over 60 known chemicals required for a venus fly trap to attract
its prey. The venus fly trap also has digestive enzymes that allow it to metabolize the body of a fly into useful energy. Any of these functions alone
would not allow a venus fly trap to successfully trap and extract energy from a fly. Therefore, it could not have come to be by the theorized
mechanisms of evolution.
Imagine you had the first device that emitted a radar signal. Even though you could emit a radar signal, that signal is useless without something to
receive the signal. The same logic applies to bat sonar. The ability for a bat to emit a sonar signal is useless unless it also has sensory devices
detect the emitted signal. Not only that, but it also has to be able to send these signals to brain processing centers that allow it to make sense of
the signal it is receiving. These signals recognized by the brain must then be able to cause very quick muscle movement to allow it to catch the very
allusive bugs that it eats as prey.
As discussed earlier, wiring neural circuits is no easy task. Especially for random mutations. Random mutations have never been proven in a lab to be
able to make new useful neural circuits, let alone sonar emitting or receiving apparatuses. And also, what if, after all this, the bat doesn't even
like to eat flies? This is a clear example of irreducible complexity. Echolocation could not have come to be by evolution, it is an intelligently
designed function that allows the animal to have its niche in the environment.
Stomach acid consists of three chemicals - HCl, NaCl, and KCl. When food enters the stomach, it triggers stomach cells to release this slew of
digestive chemicals. But, how does the stomach avoid being digested in the process? Cells in the lining of the stomach produce a buffer solution, that
prevents that acidity from digesting the stomach lining. So which came first, the acid to digest the food? or the stomach lining to protect from
self-digestion? Obviously both are needed for proper functioning. This is irreducible complexity.
It is not as if stomach acid is easy to produce either. Ion pumps in parietal (stomach) cells need to pump H+ protons against a concentration gradient
up to ratios of 3,000,000 to 1. Even if this great feat was somehow sufficed by sequential mutations, it would need to be tightly regulated both
chemically and neurologically. Mutations have never been shown to add novel interconnected functions like this.
The body then has indicators to show when the food is properly digested. This triggers the pyloric sphincter to open
If not for this valve, food would not have its proper time in the stomach, and without the proper signaling cues, it would behave erratically. This is
just the very basics of all the necessary functions for a stomach to work. At the cellular level it gets even more interdependent and finely tuned. It
is impossible for all of these functions to have come to be by step-by-step mutation, because all of these components are necessary for proper
There are countless other examples. It's time for us to start thinking past the evolution illusion.
edit on 9-7-2019 by cooperton because: (no