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There was never a large solar flare while the Lunar astronauts were in space. One did occur in 1972 between the Apollo 16 mission and Apollo 17 mission.
And even if one did occur, the command module shielding would limit the astronauts exposure to 35 REMs -- that's reletively high, but not necessarily life threatening.
Unfortunately for the ultra–heavy
ions accompanying a solar flare there
measurements. There are, however,
two very limited sets of measurements
that, on a preliminary basis, appear to
indicate that the CREME mean
abundances significantly underpredict
the ultra–heavy portion of solar flare
ions. During the April 17–19, 1972
weak solar flare, Apollo 16 was on its
lunar mission. Tracks made by the solar flare heavy ions in
lexan and SiO
glass samples from the lunar module were
subsequently analyzed . From these tracks five groups of
heavy ions could be distinguished: He, O, Fe, Z>32, and
Z>44. For the He, O, and Fe ions, energy dependent fluences
for the entire flare were determined; for the ultra–heavy ions,
the fluence at only one energy (051 MeV per nucleon) could
be obtained. In Table 4 are listed the measured abundances
at 1 MeV per nucleon normalized relative to He, for the
April 1972 flare and the mean abundances found in CREME.
It is apparent that the measured abundances for O and Fe
agree fairly well with those in CREME, but for the ultra–
heavy ions the measured abundances are higher by about two
orders of magnitude relative to the mean values in CREME.
During a weak solar flare, energy spectra of He, O, and Fe from 0.2 to ∼ 30 MeV per nucleon were measured with glass and plastic detectors exposed on the Apollo 16 spacecraft. The spectra were very steep and the abundance ratios Fe/O and O/He decreased rapidly with energy, approaching solar atmospheric ratios at energies above ∼ 5 MeV per nucleon. The shapes of the rigidity spectra suggest that the ions were completely stripped while being accelerated.
Have you finally understood what means "to land going backwards"?
IT MEANS THAT THE ROCKET MUST RETROCEDE COMING DOWN WITH
THE ROCKET ENGINE IN ITS ARSE.
If you had a so powerful fart that had the strenght to sustain you above your chair, would you be able to balance yourself above it at 10 foot and
then to sit down without breaking your bones?
Originally posted by Soylent Green Is People
reply to post by pepsi78
I said a LARGE solar flare. The one that took place April 17-19 1972 was a minor solar flare -- not powerful enough to kill (although I'm sure the Apollo astonaut's chances for getting cancer are higher than for most people -- but not any greater than an airline pilot who spends many, many days of his life at high altitude.)
And it is true that the command module had no purposely built shielding, but the mass of the craft -- meaning the insulation between the inner and outer metal skins -- was enough to allow the astronauts to survive with doses of radiation higher than most people, but not lethal.
And speaking of radiation shielding, the whole theory that the astronauts would have suffered lethal doses of radiation was debunked by Dr. James Van Allen (the discoverer of the Van Allen Belts). He specifically talked about the FOX-TV show that raised the Moon Hoax question.
Dr. Van Allen had this to say about that TV show:
"The recent Fox TV show, which I saw, is an ingenious and entertaining assemblage of nonsense. The claim that radiation exposure during the Apollo missions would have been fatal to the astronauts is only one example of such nonsense."
Who do you think I should believe about radiation in space...a TV show put on by FOX and other Moon Hoax believers, or Dr. James Van Allen himself?
1 rad (or rem) = 0.01 joules per kilogram
1 gray (or sievert) = 1 joule per kilogram
1 rad = 6.24E7 MeV per gram
1 rad = 100 ergs per gram
1 electron volt = 1.6E-12 ergs
1 electron volt = 1.6E-19 joules
1 electron volt = 0.001 keV
1 electron volt = 1E-6 MeV
1 erg = 1E-7 joules
1 erg = 6.24E5 MeV
1 erg = 6.24E11 electron volts
1 MeV = 1.6E-6 ergs
1 joule = 1E7 ergs
Originally posted by SpaceMax
The aircraft/spacecraft knows where it is at all times. It knows this because it knows where it isn't. By subtracting where it is from where it isn't, or where it isn't from where it is (whichever is the greater), it obtains a difference, or deviation.
The Inertial Guidance System uses deviations to generate error signal commands which instruct the aircraft/spacecraft to move from a position where it is to a position where it isn't, arriving at a position where it wasn't, or now is.
Originally posted by Zaphod58
And as you can see, I went and added that in LLRV #1 they SUCCESSFULLY flew almost 200 times. So that one crash makes it a total failure?
In all, NASA built five LM trainers of this type. During training flights at Ellington AFB near Houston, Texas, three of the five vehicles were destroyed in crashes. Two were an early version called the Lunar Landing Research Vehicle or LLRV. Neil Armstrong was flying LLRV-1 on May 6, 1968 when it went out of control. He ejected safely and the vehicle crashed. A later version was called the Lunar Landing Training Vehicle or LLTV and three were built. Two of these were lost in crashes on December 8, 1968 (piloted by Joe Algranti) and January 29, 1971 (piloted by Stuart Present). The other pilots also ejected safely from the crashing LLTV's.
Originally posted by weedwhacker
Someone with more knowledge should post a primer on how radiation is measured, and how, like the difference between English and Metric measures, there are different standards applied when measuring radiation.
(It's different in America, for instance, than in Europe). So, let's be sure an intelligent forum like ATS has posts from knowledgable individuals who do not confuse to different standards.
Maybe we need some sort of Rosetta Stone?
Originally posted by SpaceMax
...The Inertial Guidance System uses deviations to generate error signal commands
which instruct the aircraft/spacecraft to move from a position where it is to a position
where it isn't, arriving at a position where it wasn't, or now is.
Consequently, the position where it is, is now the position where it wasn't;
thus, it follows logically that the position where it was is the position where it isn't...
SpaceMax, valiant effort, but I fear you will never get through to the likes of 'Pepsi78' or 'jra-2'. Every coherent and scientific post is ignored by them. Looks more and more like we're being 'punked' by pre-teens or adolescents who think it's funny. If that is the case, the Moderators should take notice?
Just a personal observation, even accounting for a possibility that English is not their first language, I see a marked similarity in these two users' posts with other inanity on 'YouTube'. Just my opinion...
. . . . . . . . . . . .
Ultimate Load with Vehicle Pitched (6")
Ultimate Load with Vehicle Pitched (6") and Small Ground Slope
Effect of Increased Load - Pitched Vehicle
Effect of Increased Load - Pitched Vehicle with Small Ground Slope
Engine Failure, 2-2 Yaw
Engine Failure, 1-2-1 Yaw
1-2-1 Yaw with 6" Pitch
1-2-1 Yaw with 6" Pitch and 3" Ground Slope
1-2-1 Yaw with 3" Pitch
1-2-1 Yaw with 3" Pitch and 3" Ground Slope
15" Ground Slope
15" Ground Slope with -15' Pitch
Effect of Yaw - Pitched Vehicle (6")
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Effect of Yaw - Pitched Vehicle (6") with Ground Slope
Effect of Yaw - Pitched Vehicle (3")
Effect of Yaw - Standard Landing
Effect of Thrust - Standard Landing
Effect of Thrust -L Pitched Vehicle (-6")
. . . . . . . . .
Effect of Thrust - Pitched Vehicle (6")
Effect of Thrust Ground Slope 3"
Effect of Pitch 2-2 Yaw
Effect of Pitch 2-2 Yaw. Lunar Mode
Effect of Pitch 2-2 Yaw. 3" Ground Slope
Effect of Pitch 1-2-1 Yaw
Effect of Pitch 1-2-1 Yaw with 3" Ground Slope 32
Effect of Ground Slope
Effect of Ground Slope. Lunar Mode
Effect of Ground Slope. Pitched Vehicle (6")
Effect of Pitch Velocity
Effect of Sliding Footpads
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A measure of ionization that is defined for X-rays and gamma-rays up to the energy of 3 MeV. It is about equivalent to 100 ergs per gram of energy deposited in air.
1 rad = 100 ergs per gram
25-100 Rads - Typically people with this level of radiation exposure experience a loss of appetite and a small amount of nausea and sickness for the higher end of this dose category. Blood changes are noticeable. Up to 25 percent of persons experiencing this level of exposure will be incapacitated, but none will die. The normal period of convalescence will be about 7 days.