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150 years later Maximilian of Mexico remembered as Statesman with vision well beyond his time.

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posted on Mar, 9 2017 @ 07:15 PM
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The Peace of God to all that belong to the light
Dear Readers,


In 1978 King Juan Carlos of Spain signed what is considered the most democratic of the constitutions ever existed under a constitutional monarchy system in the world.

This spanish Carta Magna was based in the principle of national concord and mutual reconciliation, definitive closure of the internal confrontations of the past, absolute political pluralism( neither hegemonic State party nor bipartisan state) , strict divisions of powers( Legislative, Jurisdictional and Executive) and also separate the government chief office from the Head of State, creating under the principle of union regional autonomies for ethnical minorities, being neither centralist neither federal system, respecting religious freedom but also the rights of the religious organizations over their private possessions.

Juan Carlos of Borbon as soon as ascended to the Throne started what was considered by many an almost political mission impossible: to teach to all Spanish people that the same differences that had boosted a terrible civil war in the 1930s enriched the nation with a diversity that if was exploited intelligently could lead Spain again to an era of progress, he taught to the Communists, Socialists and Fascists how to live in concord under a democratic system in which they could negotiate their differences without arriving to violence but to a mutually convenient consensus.

The political model adopted in 1978 moved Spain definitively on from the crisis created by the civil war and the Francoist Dictatorship to the modernity, establishing the bases of a society that never again has fallen in the social imbalances or the huge conflicts of the past.

What few people know is that the idea was Not new at all and was highly inspired in the legal framework of the second Mexican Empire devised by Maximilian of Habsburg in his unsuccessful attempt to end the Reforma Civil war in between Mexican liberals and conservatives.

This Month of March it is the 150 anniversary of the final stage of a historic pioneer experiment that was misunderstood and so didn't work, the siege in Queretaro of the first Liberal Monarch of the western civilization whose political ideas still inspire today the way some of the most prosperous nations have been organized ( Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, Denmark, Belgium, Norway, Japan, Great Britain, Canada, New Zealand, Australia).

Extremely important social laws never before seen in Mexico put Maximilian in History, in his short rule of three years in power:

1) first Mexican Law that guaranteed free access to public education for all.

2) First Mexican law of protection of the lands, patrimony and culture of the aborigines.

3) abolition of the Slavery of the aborigines in Mexico under the Land lords, restoring communal property and forbade all forms of corporal punishment.

4) voting right for all the people in the country in spite if they were educated, economically independent or not.

5) Open Mexico to immigrants provided they swear allegiance to the country. He understood the force that immigrants represent to push a nation ahead.

6) Restriction of excessive working hours for the workers, a limit of maximum 10 hours per day , 5 days a week, and abolition of children labour.

7) Cancellation with the help of the State of all debts for peasants that were unable to afford to prevent they lose their lands.

8) He redefined architectonically the planning of Mexico city as one of the first metropolis of the world, including the construction of the Reforma boulevard.

9) He created the first National Academy of Sciences and Language, as well as, the National Archaeological , Natural science Museums and the National science foundation.

10) He made mandatory that employers support workers to pursue technical education.

11) He created the first School for deaf and mute people in Mexico.

12) He ordered the creation of the first public Health system in Mexico.

13) His was the first Mexican Law of State support for Pensioners and Retirement planning.

Please read:

www.nobility-association.com...

revistas.juridicas.unam.mx...

150 years after his tragic death Maximilian of Mexico remains as a unique example of statesman that lived two centuries before his time, an inspirational figure in History that tried to conciliate social differences that in the long run, when were no longer really faced in the intelligent comprehensive way he analyzed and handled became transformed in a demographic bomb that almost annihilated The nation he loved and tried to serve with the best of his abilities.

The Unsolved social problems and political divisions that neither The Liberal nor the Conservative Dictators Benito Juarez and Porfirio Diaz were unable to handle with the vision of Maximilian triggered the terrible Mexican Revolution of 1914, the second worst blood bath of the History of the Americas, after the American secession war, in which a Mexico with less than 20 millions of inhabitants lost almost 2 million of lives.

Maximilian of Habsburg understood that the internal unsolved conflicts and divisions of Mexico under the so aggressive expansion of the United States during the XIX century were menacing the culture, national identity, moral and religious values and political Independence of Mexico to take their own decisions and create a secure and stable path for economic growing in social harmony.

Thanks for your attention,

The Angel of Lightness
edit on 3/9/2017 by The angel of light because: (no reason given)




posted on Mar, 9 2017 @ 10:34 PM
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Thank you O.P....it is in fact time for Mexico to rise...and this is the beginning of this future....sharing positive history to stimulate great minds and encourage them to strive to equal or better this mans greatness in todays world....for it IS POSSIBLE.



posted on Mar, 10 2017 @ 12:26 AM
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my great great grandfather was named maximilian, i have family on both parents sides that came to america in the late 1880's. most mexicans have hatred for maximilian and the imperial rule, they resented being ruled by wealthy spaniards and outsiders.i will have to read more in to it because some of the laws you have posted here sound very fair but you must understand that the mexican people wanted to rule themselves.



posted on Mar, 10 2017 @ 03:53 AM
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a reply to: The angel of light
Maximilian's authority was fatally undermined by the fact that the real sources of his power were outside the country. His empire was promoted by Napoleon III of France and supported by French troops, and collapsed when Bazaine's army was withdrawn. He did not really stand a chance.
Whereas Juan Carlos was a national king in his own country, which put him in a much stronger position.

How much was Maximilian really "beyond his time", and how much was he simply importing the ideas of contemporary liberalism (e.g. Napoleon III's liberalism) as found in Europe?




edit on 10-3-2017 by DISRAELI because: (no reason given)



posted on Mar, 10 2017 @ 09:40 AM
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a reply to: The angel of light

Did you people actually read a history book ?, Napoleon III sent an army to invade Mexico and install a puppet emperor and when all the gold was looted he just abandoned poor Maximilian...



posted on Mar, 10 2017 @ 04:21 PM
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a reply to: conspiracy nut

Well Dear Conspiracy nut,

Maximilian of Habsburg conditioned his decision to accept the Imperial Throne of Mexico when he was visited by a commission of notable people of that country in his palace at Miramar, to the realization of a National referendum asking to the Mexican people directly if they wanted such a rule. The referendum took place and it was voted in favor of Maximilian.

Mexico Emperors Referendum 1863

The Juarists always have attacked that decision saying that the referendum was performed while Mexico was occupied by the French Army, but anyway that is far more of what Benito Juarez could show in to justify his authority since the truth is that he was an acting President, that was not elected by the people.

Benito Juarez Garcia was imposed as President by a decision taken solely by the Liberal faction in the Congress of Mexico, the conservative congressmen opposed it and he jumped from Member of the Supreme Court to the Presidency, in a clear unconstitutional maneuver since it violates the divisions of powers.

The conservative Senators and members of the house elected General Miguel G. Miramon as the only President they recognized, who was a former Child Hero, the only one that survived the siege of the Chapultepec Castle during the American assault to Mexico city of 1848.

General Miguel Miramon, the seventh Hero Child of Mexico

Miguel Miramon - Nino Heroe

General Miguel G. Miramon resigned his office as Acting President in favor of Maximilian and supported him until his death, he was shoted aside him in Queretaro.

Miguel Miramon, President of Mexico 1859-60 appointed by Tacubaya plan

Of course the Juarist propaganda machinery has undermined the fact that Miramon was National Hero and also that General Jose Tomas Mejia-Camacho, the other man that shot with Maximiliano in Queretaro was a pure blood Aborigine of the country contradicting the fact that only Mexican white people and foreigners were supporting Maximilian.

Please check:
General Tomas Mejia Mexican Indian died supporting Maximilian

Thanks,

The Angel of Lightness
edit on 3/10/2017 by The angel of light because: (no reason given)



posted on Mar, 10 2017 @ 04:45 PM
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a reply to: manuelram16

Of course I read History and possibly in a more impartial way than you, from different sources. It is true that Napoleon III sent an Army to put order in the chaotic Mexico that was already in a civil war in between Liberals and Conservatives, a war called the Reforma, since it was triggered by the so called laws of Reforma that the acting President, of the Liberals, Benito Juarez signed to expropriate without any indemnification all the goods of the Catholic Church in that country, in order to create a super powerful public sector that controlled all the economic life of Mexico.

Please check:
La Reforma Laws

The Reforma Civil War

The war that lasted three years ( 1857-1860)certainly had eroded the public finances, and the external debt of the country grew exponentially due to it. Benito Juarez used European banks to sponsor his army and at some point after years of take loans after loans in a pretty irresponsible way, confident in all the wealth that it was in game , the goods the State was taken away from the Church.

By 1860 when he felt he has won the war, being in possession of all the wealth of the church, he decided unilaterally to stop payments to his creditors the British, Spanish and French Banks. The European bankers felt this was a clear dishonest move so they went to Napoleon III asking for support to collect their money and that triggered the French intervention.

Please check:
The French Intevention in Mexico


Now, when Juarez saw that the French army entered in Mexico to support the conservative side, he signed a so controversial deal with President Lincoln for all the economic support he needed to receive from him to assure the continuation of his dictatorship, that deal it is known as the Bucarelli Protocols ( formally called Tratado McLane-Ocampo) .

Please check:
McLane - Ocampo Treaty

To negiotiate the McLane-Ocampo treaty, Lincoln representatives asked for a Loan guaranty to Juarez, knowing that the French intervention was caused precisely for the negative of the Liberal politician to pay all the money he had lent from French Banks to win the civil war.

The American delegation asked for the Baja California Peninsula as guaranty, but Juarez counter offered to give them among other concessions the following one:

1) Perpetual Free transit of all American citizens, either civilians and army, through the States of Chihuahua, and Sonora to the Gulf of California, the so called sea of Cortes.

2)Perpetual Free transit of all American citizens, either civilians and army, through the Tehuantepec isthmus from the Atlantic to the Pacific oceans.

3) Mexico compromised to do not develop their own industry along a century since that moment and consume solely American manufactured products.

The deal was settle down, Juarez received the weapons, money, food and costumes he needed for his army and United states had incredible privileges in guaranty during years under his rule.

Many years after that when General Porfirio Diaz took power he denounced the Bucarelli protocols of Mclane-Ocampo treaty, declaring them to be a huge treason against Mexico, comparable to Antonio Lopez of Sta Anna's in the Guadalupe-Hidalgo Treaty, and voided them, arguing that Juarez was not elected for the office by the time and also he never received authorization of the National Congress to sign such a document.

Don Porfirio Diaz also enforced a close relationship with Europe in order to arm Mexico for any eventual retaliatory attack from the United States, he industrialized Mexico defying the terms of that treaty and bought the original artillery guns used to protect the Dardanelles strait from the Turkey Sultan to protect the two coasts of the Tehuantepec Isthmus, to prevent another political maneuver against Mexico similar than the Panama revolution that Teddy Roosevelt triggered against Colombia when that country decided to don't sign the Canal treaty.

Porfirio Diaz did a lot to strengthened Mexico economically but he didn't perform the social reforms that the nation needed, the ones Maximilian once worked so much to achieve and he underestimated the American capability to conspire against his regime, so he finally ended his sixth term as President facing the first stage of a revolution boosted from San Antonio Texas.

Please check:

Plan of San Luis Potosi launched from San Antonio Texas

Thanks,

The Angel of Lightness


edit on 3/10/2017 by The angel of light because: (no reason given)



posted on Mar, 10 2017 @ 04:51 PM
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So you are saying that it doesn't matter if a country is invaded and a puppet 'emperor' is installed as long as he brings "change".... sounds eerie! next thing you'll tell me is that Pancho Villa was a hero and not a cold blooded murderer... and that the Alamo was a fort.



posted on Mar, 10 2017 @ 05:32 PM
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originally posted by: The angel of light
a reply to: conspiracy nut

Well Dear Conspiracy nut,

Maximilian of Habsburg conditioned his decision to accept the Imperial Throne of Mexico when he was visited by a commission of notable people of that country in his palace at Miramar, to the realization of a National referendum asking to the Mexican people directly if they wanted such a rule. The referendum took place and it was voted in favor of Maximilian.

Mexico Emperors Referendum 1863

The Juarists always have attacked that decision saying that the referendum was performed while Mexico was occupied by the French Army, but anyway that is far more of what Benito Juarez could show in to justify his authority since the truth is that he was an acting President, that was not elected by the people.

Benito Juarez Garcia was imposed as President by a decision taken solely by the Liberal faction in the Congress of Mexico, the conservative congressmen opposed it and he jumped from Member of the Supreme Court to the Presidency, in a clear unconstitutional maneuver since it violates the divisions of powers.

The conservative Senators and members of the house elected General Miguel G. Miramon as the only President they recognized, who was a former Child Hero, the only one that survived the siege of the Chapultepec Castle during the American assault to Mexico city of 1848.

General Miguel Miramon, the seventh Hero Child of Mexico

Miguel Miramon - Nino Heroe

General Miguel G. Miramon resigned his office as Acting President in favor of Maximilian and supported him until his death, he was shoted aside him in Queretaro.

Miguel Miramon, President of Mexico 1859-60 appointed by Tacubaya plan

Of course the Juarist propaganda machinery has undermined the fact that Miramon was National Hero and also that General Jose Tomas Mejia-Camacho, the other man that shot with Maximiliano in Queretaro was a pure blood Aborigine of the country contradicting the fact that only Mexican white people and foreigners were supporting Maximilian.

Please check:
General Tomas Mejia Mexican Indian died supporting Maximilian

Thanks,

The Angel of Lightness


i will read more in to it. first i would like to ask if max was voted in by the people or by "the people" and you know what i mean by this. second just because an aborigine worked with an outsider does not mean jack to me, i.e la malinche.



posted on Mar, 10 2017 @ 07:31 PM
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a reply to: manuelram16

No, that is your own recollection, of course Pancho Villa look like more as a bandit, but of white collar, since he anyway was governor of the State of Chihuahua, under the revolution of course, and at that time he behaved as statesman, according with most of the sources. Anyway Mexico has decided to honor him as a leader of the people by allowing his remains to rest in the Revolution's Monument at Mexico city.

Please check:

en.wikipedia.org...-33

Now, in his times of fugitive he used to trade grass with the US army in exchange for weapons, that he used to fight in Mexico.

So let's say that to be more objective he perform as a kind of Mexican Robin Hood. Of course he was born in between 10 to 12 years after Maximilian was shot, so only Juarez and Diaz could be blamed of why there was once a Pancho Villa.


President Woodrow Wilson knew some version of Villa's reputation, saying he was "a sort of Robin Hood [who] had spent an eventful life robbing the rich in order to give to the poor. He had even at some point kept a butcher's shop for the purpose of distributing to the poor the proceeds of his innumerable cattle raids." Wilson, quoted in Katz, The Life and Times of Pancho Villa, p. 7.


I am sorry that in the middle of your ignorance you think this is the upside down version of the History, but even great iconic figures of the Mexican Cultural life, like Jose Vasconcelos, had a good opinion of Maximilian.


"I know that in Mexico there will be no homeland, while school children learn not to shed a tear of gratitude for the man
that left European luxury and glory, to come to America
to die in defense of the threatened Latin culture."
-José Vasconcelos


Now history says us that the Alamo was a religious mission, although there were no monks inside and definitively no Saints when it became famous.

Now talking about puppets in Mexican History well Benito Juarez does not escape at all free of guilt, he never would have won against Maximilian without the help of his free Mason fellow Abraham Lincoln.

The problem my friend is that in this chapter of History we are discussing there is a lot of political propaganda labels in use, the same people that demonise Maximilian or Diaz, are the ones that want to put Juarez and perhaps even Villa in an Altar, although none of them were even Christians, so how could they be saints?

Now, if you are looking for the guy that really all Historians agree is the bloody murderer, an Assassin, of the Mexican tragedy was Victoriano Huerta, and believe it or not was not raised as an uneducated bandit like Villa, was a school teacher before to enter the army and make a career until the top to be General under the Revolution, just to carry out a coup in treason to his President Francisco I Madero.

Thanks

The Angel of Lightness
edit on 3/10/2017 by The angel of light because: (no reason given)



posted on Mar, 11 2017 @ 05:28 AM
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a reply to: conspiracy nut

Well Dear Conspiracy nut,

Again, who voted to install Juarez on the Presidential seat at 1857? His fellow liberal congressmen and members of the supreme Court? It is pretty clear that they were more "people" than the more of 6 million votes that offered the Throne of Mexico to Maximiliam.

There were many outsiders supporting Juarez, and not only from the financial point of view, his General that won 5th of May battle was really the Texan born Ignacio Zaragoza, although who won the war was really Porfirio Diaz.

Juarez even crossed the border to stay in American soil presiding a so called government in exile at the worst moment of his fight with Maximilian.

Of course he was not the only dictator that was ruling Mexico with foreign support, Sta Anna may surpass him in such skills, and well History tells us that Moctezuma was the puppet of Cortes when his own people gave rid of him.

Malinche helped a lot the Spaniards to defeat the Aztecs tiranny but the muscle for that operation were the hundred of thousands of Tlaxcaltecs and other rebels from the gulf coast that saw in him more a liberator than a conqueror.

Maximiliam never ruled as dictator, he was head of state but his head of government was Miguel Miramon, who was Mexican born, moreover a national hero. He was Prime Minister after Benito Juarez rejected the offer of the Emperor to be in that job, one that may have saved to Mexico thousands of lives in a useless costly civil war.

Thanks

The Angel of Lightness
edit on 3/11/2017 by The angel of light because: (no reason given)



posted on Mar, 11 2017 @ 09:38 AM
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a reply to: DISRAELI

Dear Disraeli, that's conclusion is quite relative:

- Napoleon III couldn't force six million Mexicans to vote in referendum for Maximiliam, only a strong Mexican conservative party had the organization to do so.

- Juan Carlos became King nor because the Spanish people had decided that, neither because he was the recipient of the dynasty rights, Since his Grand father had already abdicated them, as well as two of his uncle's who had more rights than him to it, and the head of his family in exile at Portugal was his father, who by blood also preceded him in any right to the throne.

- Juan Carlos became King fundamentally by the grace of General Francisco Franco, who put him in the Spanish Throne, after being more than three decades ruling the country as Dictator.

- who put Franco in power? He arrived to it by force in a coup against a Socialist Republic with clear Marxist ties, that triggered a civil war that he won with the support and even military intervention of the Nazi Germany and the Fascist Italy.

- It is true that Maximilian didn't born Mexican, but he was related by blood with Kings of Spain like Felipe II or Carlos I, Charles Vth of Germany, who once ruled Mexico.

- Juan Carlos didn't born in Spain, he was born in the exile of his family in Italy, and his early childhood happened in the same exile then in Portugal.

Are Juan Carlos and Maximiliam so different each one to the other? Who say so?

What possibly make the difference in between them is that Juan Carlos never had an Antagonist so dangerous and intransigent trying to boycott all his efforts to push Spain united ahead as Benito Juarez, supported by an external super power.

Maximiliam did all what was in his hands to settle down his differences with the self proclaimed Liberal President, even he offered him full amnesty and the seat of Prime Minister.

Benito Juarez after had won a civil war he lasted for a decade over his nation , he didn't only kill Maximilian , as well as the Mexican former President Miramon and General Mejia but he also supressed the Conservative party, leaving his liberal party as the only political force allowed to exist in Mexico until he died in power. That is not the attitude of a Democratic leader but of a Tyrant.

The anti religious persecution of the Juarism against Christians are among the worst ones ever occurred in modern times in the Western civilization, only Robespierre, Stalin, Henry the VIIIth and Plutarco Elias Calles did something similar to Juarez to try to destroy institutional religion, a terrible violation of the freedom of consciousness.

Please check

en.m.wikipedia.org...

Thanks

The Angel of Lightness
edit on 3/11/2017 by The angel of light because: (no reason given)



posted on Mar, 11 2017 @ 11:43 AM
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a reply to: one4all

Dear one4all,

Thank you for your openness to accept to discuss a chapter of History that has been traditionally approached in books through the lens of only one version by appealing to the actual facts, without prejudiced them.

It is time that History get rid of ideological stereotypes and labels that are more the product of political propaganda than an objective reflection of the past.

Sincerely

The Angel of Lightness
edit on 3/11/2017 by The angel of light because: (no reason given)



posted on Mar, 14 2017 @ 09:16 AM
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The peace of God to all that belong to the Light
Dear Readers

I think is quite important to underline here that the so called Reforma Law, that Benito Juarez defended so much until the point of to push his country to an entire decade of internal conflict was not just confiscating only the goods of all religious corporations in Mexico, but also of any civilian society, and that included the lands of all the Indian reservations existing in Mexico since colonial times.

This dictatorial and abusive law that it is also known as Lerdo law considered any kind of community or cooperative property unacceptable, so only private Individual property was allowed to continue existing.

This upside down law undermined the essential foundations of the free economic association between people with common interests to defend together their interests.

The philosophy of the law was to do not tolerate any cooperative organizations, to try to erase them at all from the Mexican life.

Indigineous people's of Mexico lost total control over their lands and patrimony due to this horrendous disposition, for that reason Mexican Aborigines supported Maximilian as their Savior, they were sent too as millions of Mexican monks, nuns and priests to absolute misery and ruined in all aspects by Juarez and his fellow fanatic statism politicians.

Please check

Lerdo o Reforma Law


Commonfort, who was the President under whom this law was approved and who
Juarez pretended to be his successor left millions of Mexican Indians without economic means to survive, his lands were taken a way by the Mexican State.

Thanks for your attention

The Angel of Lightness

edit on 3/14/2017 by The angel of light because: (no reason given)



posted on Mar, 14 2017 @ 05:51 PM
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a reply to: The angel of light

It sounds like you are a revisionist. Benito Juarez is loved by the Mexican people in the same way as Abe Lincoln or JFK. The truth is the Spaniards came and exploited Mexico and South America and wealthy descendants of the wealthy European land owners still run and exploit Mexico and other Hispanic countries to this day.

If the native Americans knew what the pilgrims and colonialists had in store for them they never would have aligned with them. The resources in Mexico and the rest of the americas made a lot of Europeans wealthy.



posted on Mar, 14 2017 @ 07:10 PM
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a reply to: conspiracy nut

Please Dear Conspiracy nut,

Try to don't be judgmental in a hurry, consider that you could be judging from the appearances, and as Socrates used to say Appearances deceive.

During the 71 years of the Hegemonic regime of the PRI over Mexico in the XX century there was Cult to the Personality of Benito Juarez, similar to the one of Vladimir Lenin or Joseph Stalin under the USSR or Adolf Hitler in the III Reich.

His entire life was idealized, it was a mandatory chapter in the History books printed by the State, which became text books in all schools by law, and portrayed him as an example for the children.

This at the same time that the real Hero in the resistance to the French intervention was reduced as the role of Tyrant, General Porfirio Diaz. It is logic that many Mexicans even ignore how different was the real man of the myth that was created by the political propaganda.

Let me remind some facts about the life of this man:

- He was of humble origin in Oaxaca Mexico, son of shepherds, his parents died when he was boy as well as his grand parents, he became orphan but under the custody of an uncle, who supported him but didn't have neither the education not the economic means to give him formal education.

- He was a smart and disciplined boy, he called the attention of a Catholic priest the Franciscan and bookbinder, Antonio Salanueva, who gave him the opportunity of a decent basic education and also recommended him for a scholarship in a seminar of the Catholic Church,that he attended and graduated from although he didn't pursue a Priest career.

- In 1827 he enrolled in the Instituto of Science and Arts of Oaxaca, a University that was in filtered by free masons. He became an activist member of that secret society, until he reached the Mason 33 degree, becoming a great Master of a political organization that have had important role in political conspiracies along History. He graduated in 1834 with a degree in Law, but by that time he already had ran for a political office of judge in Oaxaca.

- He became a well-educated, urban professional and soon developed interest in a political career. He married in 1843 a socially prominent white woman of Oaxaca City, not an aborigine one as him. Among his extensive writing production it is almost inexistent papers talking about his indigenous heritage.

- In 1857 when he was already member of the Supreme court of Mexico, position that he reached by merits but also a proof that Mexico was not under a segregationist regime, but he started to fight against any collective property, targeting the church and the Indian communities, supporting the Lerdo Law that was created to expropriate all their goods.

- The Lerdo law was not looking for any justice, nor for any redistribution of nothing, it was intended to activate a market of real state that was not existing in Mexico, since the land was rarely transferred outside the families or the communities it belonged to.

- The motivation was to generate more Taxes to the state, and also a so much strong public sector that may dictate to the individuals the way they must live, as well as their principles and moral values.

- His arrival to power was caused by a political crisis of succession after the resignation of the Liberal President Ignacio Comonfort, who sent the country to chaos with his decision of to implement the Lerdo Law, that left millions of good citizens without any economic mean of survival.

- The negative impact of this forced expropriation of lands can be inferred by checking the rate of demographic growing of Mexico in between 1857 and 1867s, his time frame in power, it is around 0.6% per year.

Please check:
www.migrationpolicy.org...

www.populstat.info...


the Federal District and nine neighboring states shrank in relative (population) size, from 49% in 1810 to 40% in 1870, and then recovered to 43% by 1910.


Please check:
users.pop.umn.edu...

- He was not clearly the successor, he performed a spectacular leap through political intrigue from the Supreme court to the Presidency in a closed door voting of the congressmen of his own party. The Conservative congressmen never accepted him as legitimate head of State, because he was not elected by the popular vote.

- He was obsessed in to impose a economic package of policies at any social cost, which convenience for the country is still controversial:

- Pushing Mexico into industrial capitalism in detriment of the Agriculture sectors.
- A market of manufactured goods created by destroying self sufficient collective farms,
- The religious communities properties and Indian reservations were expropriated without compensation.
- The loyalty to the State replaced religious beliefs through secular education.
- Supremacy of central political power over the states,
- Competence ruled by great capitals ruling distribution of the wealth,
- landlords needing not to have any ancestral link to their lands.
- Against civil societies that promoted cooperatives or collective organization of people.
- His only civil work was a rail road connecting central Mexico with the US Border, No infrastructure development.
- He escalated military expenses in internal wars he insisted to maintain for a decade killing about 73000 to 75000 Mexicans, eroding the national economy with devastating consequences.

Please check:
Reforma and Maximilian-Juarez Civil wars dead toll

- He increased exponentially the public debt with banks, He signed unthinkable conditions for the debt he acquired with the USA to win the war.
- He closed the Pontifical University of Mexico in 1865 that had functioned without interruption since 1551. Mexico became a Country without National alma mater until 1910 when Porfirio Diaz through his Public Education Secretary Justo Sierra founded the UNAM.

Thanks,

The Angel of Lightness

edit on 3/14/2017 by The angel of light because: (no reason given)



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