By 10,200–8,800 BCE, farming communities arose in the Levant and spread to Asia Minor, North Africa and North Mesopotamia. Mesopotamia is the site
of the earliest developments of the Neolithic Revolution from around 10,000 BCE.
Early Neolithic farming was limited to a narrow range of plants, both wild and domesticated, which included wheat, millet and spelt, and the keeping
of dogs, sheep and goats. By about 6,900–6,400 BCE, it included domesticated cattle and pigs, the establishment of permanently or seasonally
inhabited settlements, and the use of pottery.
The Bell-Beaker culture
The Bell-Beaker culture (sometimes shortened to Beaker culture, Beaker people, or Beaker folk), c. 2800 – 1800 BCE, is the term for a widely
scattered 'archaeological culture' of prehistoric western Europe starting in the late Neolithic or Chalcolithic and running into the early Bronze Age.
The term was coined by John Abercromby, based on the culture's distinctive pottery drinking vessels.
Dailymail 2013 - European DNA suddenly change 4,000 years ago
c. 2800 – 1800 BCE
They say the rapid expansion of the Bell Beaker culture, which is believed to have been instrumental in building the monoliths at Stonehedge, could
hold the key.
The Neolithic Age, Era, or Period, or New Stone Age, was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, in some parts of
the Middle East, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4,500 and 2,000 BC.
The Chalcolithic, "copper" and "stone") period or Copper Age, also known as the Eneolithic or Æneolithic (from Latin aeneus "of copper"), was a
period in the development of human technology, preceding the Bronze Age, before it was discovered that adding tin to copper formed the harder bronze.
The Copper Age was originally defined as a transition between the Neolithic and the Bronze Age.
The Yamna or Yamnaya culture, also called Pit Grave Culture and Ochre Grave Culture, was a late Copper Age/early Bronze Age culture of the Southern
Bug/Dniester/Ural region (the Pontic steppe), dating to 3,500 – 2,300 BCE. The Yamna culture is identified with the late Proto-Indo-Europeans, and
is the strongest candidate for the Urheimat (homeland) of the Proto-Indo-European language.
c. 3500 BC – 2000 BC
Yamna and Yamnaya are borrowed from Ukrainian: Ямна культура and Russian: Ямная культура respectively, and both mean
"pit-grave". The root in both cases is яма (yama) meaning "pit".
The people of the Yamnaya culture were the likely result of admixture between eastern European hunter-gatherers (via whom they also descend from the
Mal'ta-Buret' culture or other, closely related people) and Near eastern people, namely hunter-gatherers from the Caucasus c.q. Iran Chalcolithic
related people which were related to Caucasian hunter-gatherers. Their culture is materially very similar to that of the people of the Afanasevo
culture, their contemporaries in the Altai Mountains; furthermore, genetic tests have confirmed that the two groups are genetically
They are also closely connected to later, Bronze Age cultures which spread throughout Europe and Central Asia, especially the Corded Ware people, but
also the Bell Beakers as well as the peoples of the Andronovo, Sintashta, and Srubna cultures. In these groups, there are present several aspects of
the Yamna culture (e.g., horse-riding, burial styles, and to some extent the pastoralist economy). Studies have also established that these
populations derived large parts of their ancestry from the steppes,
Corded Ware Culture
The Corded Ware culture comprises a broad Indo-European archaeological horizon of Europe between c. 2900 BCE — circa 2350 BCE, thus from the late
Neolithic, through the Copper Age, and ending in the early Bronze Age. Corded Ware culture encompassed a vast area, from the Rhine on the west to the
Volga in the east, occupying parts of Northern Europe, Central Europe and Eastern Europe.
The Corded Ware was genetically strongly related to the Yamnaya culture, suggesting that the Corded Ware culture originated from migrations from the
Eurasiatic steppes. The Corded Ware culture may have disseminated the Proto-Germanic and Proto-Balto-Slavic Indo-European languages, and may also have
had a role in the spread of the Southern European Italo-Celtic and probably Proto-Greek language.
The Corded Ware Culture also shows genetic affinity with the later Sintashta culture, where the proto-Indo-Iranian language originated.
circa 2900 BCE — circa 2350 BCE
I did some dig deep research, mostly to see where the genetic makeup for the Celts came from, much of their language and culture has a common thread
with the eastern Europeans or western Asia. However despite these facts, their cultural heritage is different and has a strong influence of the Indo
legacy dating back to 7500BC, The earliest Neolithic sites in South Asia are Bhirrana in Haryana dated to 7570-6200 BCE, and Mehrgarh, dated to 7500
BC, in the Kachi plain of Baluchistan, Pakistan; the site has evidence of farming (wheat and barley) and herding cattle, sheep and goats.
They may look White but lived as Indians. Their cultural mythological traditions along with their creation myths established pagan roots to their
"homeland" or "urheimat". In the end, this culture forced other cultures into forming our fortified settlements, laws, rules and regulations.
They were no more than uncivilized brutes, in an era where agriculture and technological advancement were at its start.
The Mal'ta-Buret' culture is an archaeological culture of the Upper Paleolithic (c. 24,000 to 15,000 BP) on the upper Angara River in the
area west of Lake Baikal in the Irkutsk Oblast, Siberia, Russian Federation
The Afanasevo culture (Афанасьева: also transliterated Afanasievo, Afanásyva etc.) is the earliest Eneolithic archaeological
culture found until now in south Siberia, occupying the Minusinsk Basin and the Altai Mountains from 3300 to 2500 BC
The Sintashta culture, is a Bronze Age archaeological culture of the northern Eurasian steppe on the borders of Eastern Europe and Central
Asia. ( Extensive copper and bronze metallurgy and Fortified settlements.
Corded Ware Culture
edit on 20161127 by tikbalang because: image