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Judaism was already well established in Medina two centuries before Muhammad's birth. Although influential, the Jews did not rule the oasis. Rather, they were clients of two large Arab tribes there, the Khazraj and the Aws Allah, who protected them in return for feudal loyalty. Medina's Jews were expert jewelers, and weapons and armor makers. There were many Jewish clans-some records indicate more than twenty, of which three were prominent-the Banu Nadir, the Banu Qaynuqa, and the Banu Qurayza...
Muhammad arrived in Medina in 622 believing the Jewish tribes would welcome him. Contrary to expectation, his relations with several of the Jewish tribes in Medina were uneasy almost from the start. This was probably largely a matter of local politics.
Medina was not so much a city as a fractious agricultural settlement dotted by fortresses and strongholds, and all relations in the oasis were uneasy. In fact, Muhammad had been invited there to arbitrate a bloody civil war between the Khazraj and the Aws Allah, in which the Jewish clans, being their clients, were embroiled.
At Muhammad's insistence, Medina's pagan, Muslim and Jewish clans signed a pact to protect each other, but achieving this new social order was difficult. Certain individual pagans and recent Medinan converts to Islam tried to thwart the new arrangement in various ways, and some of the Jewish clans were uneasy with the threatened demise of the old alliances.
At least three times in five years, Jewish leaders, uncomfortable with the changing political situation in Medina, went against Muhammad, hoping to restore the tense, sometimes bloody-but predictable-balance of power among the tribes.
According to most sources, individuals from among these clans plotted to take his life at least twice, and once they came within a bite of poisoning him. Two of the tribes, the Banu Nadir and the Banu Qaynuqa, were eventually exiled for falling short on their agreed upon commitments and for the consequent danger they posed to the nascent Muslim community.
The Birmingham part of this manuscript belongs to what is commonly known as the ‘Mingana Collection’. The core Mingana Collection, of manuscripts and manuscript fragments, was built up between 1924-29 through the common interest and energy of Dr. Edward Cadbury and Alphonse Mingana. Edward Cadbury, owner of family's chocolate factory at Bournville, sponsored Alphonse Mingana in three journeys to the Middle East, and subsequently engaged Mingana to catalogue much of the collection. This must represent one of the last such European Orientalist enterprises undertaken to scour the Middle East for manuscripts.
When Mingana worked in Manchester, from 1915-32, cataloguing the Arabic manuscripts of the John Rylands Library, Edward Cadbury sponsored him to undertake three journeys to the Middle East to collect manuscripts. In the spring of 1924 in Lebanon, Syria and Iraq, Mingana acquired twenty-two Arabic and some Syriac manuscripts for the John Rylands Library and other Syriac manuscripts for Cadbury. A visit in the autumn of 1925 to Syria, Iraq and South Kurdistan yielded mostly Syriac manuscripts with some Arabic. Another in 1929 to Sinai Peninsula (St. Catherine's monastery) and Upper Egypt produced mostly Arabic manuscripts, with some Coptic and Greek.
Codex Arabe 328c – A Qur'anic Manuscript From 1st Century Of Hijra (Islamic Awareness)
Alba Fedeli, who was studying items in the Mingana Collection of Middle Eastern Manuscripts for her PhD thesis Early Qur'ānic manuscripts, their text, and the Alphonse Mingana papers held in the Department of Special Collections of the University of Birmingham, found the two leaves misidentified and bound with those of a late seventh century Quranic manuscript (now catalogued as Mingana 1572b). She arranged for them to be radiocarbon dated at the University of Oxford's Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit. They dated the parchment to between AD 568 and 645, within a 95.4% (2σ) confidence interval.
Birmingham Qur'an Manuscript (Wikipedia)
I'm not going to debate its authenticity given that it is held at University of Birmingham, although I will remain cautious. I do have to question how something like this can end up in the hands of Cadbury. So the general story is, and certainly correct me if I'm wrong in assuming, that it was taken from Egypt around 1800 during Napoleon's conquest? That would be just typical of European powers pilfering ancient relics, and such artefacts ought be returned to their rightful place... in this example it should be handed over to Al-Azhar University.
originally posted by: LittleByLittle
a reply to: Isurrender73
But both Jewish faith and Quran suffer from duality ideas that they are gods only perfection and should be masters of everyone else or wipe them out either by killing them or by submission.
I beg to differ. Religion is a mess the world over and Christianity is no exception. I'd go so far as to say that many influential people within the upper echelons do not even practice what they preach. Where is the Church today whilst civilisation destroys itself?
originally posted by: Sahabi
If the professor were incorrect in stating that some Sunnis accept the landmark mus'haf of Ali, surely, such a statement would have been torn asunder by the peer-review of religious and theological scholars.
originally posted by: Sahabi
Additionally, a multitude of Sunni sources have been cited in the Q&A of IslamQuest (Shia site); What is the Sunni viewpoint regarding the Mus’haf of Imam Ali (as)?
originally posted by: VigiliaProcuratio
in this example it should be handed over to Al-Azhar University.
"I don't understand. Why are you quoting to me a Shia source on a Sunni viewpoint?"