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TIMELINE COSMIC FUTURE
This web page combines the latest scientific theories of geological and
astronomical evolution of the Earth, Sun, and Milky Way Galaxy. Just for
fun, it interleaves a few pieces of the chronology of the amazing novel
by William Olaf Stapledon [Star Maker, 1937], which
inspired young Arthur C. Clarke. The astronomical predictions cited here
assume that human beings (or our descendants) do NOT move the Earth
further from the Sun, or slow down the Sun's evolution by "lifting"
hydrogen from the sun, and banking it in artificial Jupiters, or otherwise
engaging in major Planetary Engineering. These are a kind of "default"
predictions about the very distant future.
For an analysis of the End of the World in fiction and film, see:
WORLD COMES TO AN END: no more civilization, or people, or worse...
Other sources (cited where used) include:
Bibliography (books, articles, websites)
40,000,000 AD to 50,000,000 AD Australia rams Asia
50,000,000 AD to 60,000,000 AD Africa rams Europe
200,000,000 AD to 250,000,000 AD Supercontinent Pangea Ultima
400,000,000 AD Twice Around the Galaxy
500,000,000 AD 95% of Plants Start Dying
600,000,000 AD Thrice Around the Galaxy
750,000,000 AD Milky Way Galaxy Absorbs Sagittarius Dwarf
800,000,000 AD Four Times Around the Galaxy
900,000,000 AD All Plants Die
1,000,000,000 AD Five Times Around the Galaxy
1,200,000,000 AD Oceans Start Boiling Off
1,500,000,000 AD to 2,000,000,000 AD Earth Spins Chaotically
3,000,000,000 AD Collision/Merger with Andromeda Galaxy
3,500,000,000 AD to 6,000,000,000 AD Magma Oceans Form
7,000,000,000 AD Sun is a Red Giant Star
7,500,000,000 AD Magma Oceans Start to Boil Off
7,600,000,000 AD Sun is a White Dwarf Star
10,000,000,000 AD Milky/Andromeda Absorbs Magellanic Clouds
11,600,000,000 AD to 11,600,000,000 AD Mars has a Human-comfortable Temperature>
12,070,000,000 AD to 12,100,000,000 AD Europa has a Human-comfortable Temperature
20,000,000,000 AD "Star Maker" Fictional "War of Worlds"
30,000,000,000 AD "Star Maker" Fictional "Second Galactic Utopia"
40,000,000,000 AD "Star Maker" Fictional "First Colonization of Dead Stars"
50,000,000,000 AD "Star Maker" Fictional "Supreme Moment of the Cosmos"
60,000,000,000 AD Solid Crust Forms on the Sun
1,000,000,000,000 AD One Trillion Years From Now: Stars Die
How would an ocean of magma boil off, and I highly doubt the sun will cool enough to solidify.
"Working with Bruce Fegley and Laura Schaefer of Washington University in
St.Louis, Missouri, [Jeffrey] Kargel used astronomical predictions of the
sun's increasing brightness to calculate temperatures on the Earth's
sirface. They found that 7.57 billion years from now, the magma ocean
directly in the glare of the sun will reach almost 2200 degrees Centigrade.
'At that kind of temperature, the magma will start to evaporate," says Kargel."
"The temperature on the night side is less easy to predict. 'If there was
a thick atmosphere blowing around, it could carry enough heat to the night
side that even this dark side would be toasty warm,' says Kargel."
"'But if you don't have that atmosphere, then it could become extremely cold.'
The situation would be similar to that on [planet] Mercury, which has only
a thin atmosphere. Mercury's midday temperatures of 350 degrees Centigrade
[662 degrees Farenheit] -- hot enough to melt lead -- fall to -170 degrees
Centigrade [-274 degrees Farenheit] at night."
"[Jeffrey] Kargel thinks the night side of the Earth could be even colder,
at about -240 degrees Centigrade [-400 degrees Farenheit]. And this
bizarre hot-and-cold Earth will set up some exotic weather patterns. On
the hot side, metals like silicon, magnesium and iron, and their oxides,
will evaporate out of the magma seas. In the warm twilight zones, they'll
condense back down."
"'You'll see iron rain, maybe silicon monoxide snow,' says Kargel.
Meanwhile, potassium and sodium snow will fall from colder dusky skies."
"On the dark side, it could be cold enough for CO2, sulphur dioxide and
argon to freeze out into a giant ice cap, dusted with solid nitrogen
icing. Underneath that will be plain old water ice -- if any water
remains on the planet, that is. And there is a small chance that in the
twilight zone, this wild planet might retain a little memento of its
distant past: a cosy liquid water ocean."
Before the Sun became a White Dwarf, much of its Hydrogen had ben fused
into Helium, and much of the Helium, to Carbon. Significant amounts of
Oxygen, Silicon, Aluminum and other elements were created by
nucleosythesis. Thus, when the Sun has cooled enough, in about 60 billion
years (more than 10 times its current age) a solid crust will probably
Life may exist on the crust of the cooling sun, as first written about by
Olaf Stapledon, in his astonishing novel STAR MAKER . Perhaps even some of
our remote descendants...
But in his astonishing novel, he writes of this era as the "Dissolution of
the Cosmical Mind."
At roughly 68,000,000,000 AD he writes of "First Death of a Galaxy."