From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Transcription is the process of creating a complementary RNA copy of a sequence of DNA. Both RNA and DNA are nucleic acids, which use base pairs of
nucleotides as a complementary language that can be converted back and forth from DNA to RNA by the action of the correct enzymes. During
transcription, a DNA sequence is read by RNA polymerase, which produces a complementary, antiparallel RNA strand. As opposed to DNA replication,
transcription results in an RNA complement that includes uracil (U) in all instances where thymine (T) would have occurred in a DNA complement.
Transcription can be explained easily in 4 or 5 steps, each moving like a wave along the DNA.
1.RNA polymerase unwinds/"unzips" the DNA by breaking the hydrogen bonds between complementary nucleotides.
2.RNA nucleotides are paired with complementary DNA bases.
3.RNA sugar-phosphate backbone forms with assistance from RNA polymerase.
4.Hydrogen bonds of the untwisted RNA+DNA helix break, freeing the newly synthesized RNA strand.
5.If the cell has a nucleus, the RNA is further processed (addition of a 3' poly-A tail and a 5' cap) and exits through to the cytoplasm through
the nuclear pore complex.
Transcription is the first step leading to gene expression. The stretch of DNA transcribed into an RNA molecule is called a transcription unit and
encodes at least one gene. If the gene transcribed encodes a protein, the result of transcription is messenger RNA (mRNA), which will then be used to
create that protein via the process of translation. Alternatively, the transcribed gene may encode for either ribosomal RNA (rRNA) or transfer RNA
(tRNA), other components of the protein-assembly process, or other ribozymes.
A DNA transcription unit encoding for a protein contains not only the sequence that will eventually be directly translated into the protein (the
coding sequence) but also regulatory sequences that direct and regulate the synthesis of that protein. The regulatory sequence before (upstream from)
the coding sequence is called the five prime untranslated region (5'UTR), and the sequence following (downstream from) the coding sequence is called
the three prime untranslated region (3'UTR).
Transcription has some proofreading mechanisms, but they are fewer and less effective than the controls for copying DNA; therefore, transcription has
a lower copying fidelity than DNA replication.
As in DNA replication, DNA is read from 3' → 5' during transcription. Meanwhile, the complementary RNA is created from the 5' → 3' direction.
This means its 5' end is created first in base pairing. Although DNA is arranged as two antiparallel strands in a double helix, only one of the two
DNA strands, called the template strand, is used for transcription. This is because RNA is only single-stranded, as opposed to double-stranded DNA.
The other DNA strand is called the coding (lagging) strand, because its sequence is the same as the newly created RNA transcript (except for the
substitution of uracil for thymine). The use of only the 3' → 5' strand eliminates the need for the Okazaki fragments seen in DNA
Transcription is divided into 5 stages: pre-initiation, initiation, promoter clearance, elongation and termination.
Originally posted by Sigismundus
reply to post by theron dunn
Hi Theron Dunn ----
QUOTE "Baphomet has nothing to do with masonry or the templars, it was a LIE made up by the pope's minions under the direction of Phillip LeBel so
he could seize the assets of the Knights Templar... most likely, baphomet is an adulteration of Mohamet, since the KT did not worship anything called
Actually no, the term BAPHOMET has nothing whatsoever to do with Muhammed (or any other spelling variation of the name e.g. Mohamet) despite what some
authors (midaeaval or modern) have to say about this alleged connexion.
The Term BAPHOMET (‘wisdom’) in fact is a reverse Hebrew-Greek Gematrial ATBASH cipher for the Greek letters for SOPHIA written using Hebrew
consonants and their ATBASH cipher equivalents (S-V-Ph-Y-A translated to B-Ph-V-M-T) and is often represented illustratively as a horned goat with a
pentagram on the top of its forehead and with goat-hooves, as well as a double serpented cadeusus for a male organ and two female breasts (i.e.
self-generating, having androgynous parts like an ithyphallic Isis statue in ancient Egyptian art) – along with an arm up (coagule) and an arm down
(solve) thereby giving the mediaeval imagination the idea of a kind of evil two pronged (i.e. horned) Devil image…but obscuring the idea of it being
an image representing a positive (not evil) Solar (Dec 22) Creative Fertility Deity cf: the hooved fertility nature god Pan (Gk. For ‘Nature’ or