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Supercooling, also known as undercooling, is the process of lowering the temperature of a liquid or a gas below its freezing point without it becoming a solid.
A liquid below its standard freezing point will crystallize in the presence of a seed crystal or nucleus around which a crystal structure can form. However, lacking any such nucleus, the liquid phase can be maintained all the way down to the temperature at which crystal homogeneous nucleation occurs. Homogeneous nucleation can occur above the glass transition temperature, but if homogenous nucleation has not occurred above that temperature an amorphous (non-crystalline) solid will form.
Originally posted by boncho
reply to post by boncho
A good example of this would be a sodium acetate experiment referred to as "hot ice"...
In thermodynamics, the term exothermic ("outside heating") describes a process or reaction that releases energy from the system, usually in the form of heat, but also in the form of light (e.g. a spark, flame, or explosion), electricity (e.g. a battery), or sound (e.g. burning hydrogen). Its etymology stems from the prefix exo (derived from the Greek word ἔξω, exō, "outside") and the Greek word thermasi (meaning "to heat"). The term exothermic was first coined by Marcellin Berthelot. The opposite of an exothermic process is an endothermic process, one that absorbs energy in the form of heat. The concept is frequently applied in the physical sciences to chemical reactions, where chemical bond energy is converted to thermal energy (heat).
An exothermic reaction is a chemical reaction that releases energy in the form of light or heat. It is the opposite of an endothermic reaction. Expressed in a chemical equation: reactants → products + energy
An exothermic reaction is a chemical reaction that is accompanied by the release of heat. It gives out energy to its surroundings. The energy needed for the reaction to occur is less than the total energy released. When using a calorimeter, the change in heat of the calorimeter is equal to the opposite of the change in heat of the system. This means that when the medium in which the reaction is taking place gains heat, the reaction is exothermic. The absolute amount of energy in a chemical system is extremely difficult to measure or calculate. The enthalpy change, ΔH, of a chemical reaction is much easier to measure and calculate. A bomb calorimeter is very suitable for measuring the energy change, ΔH, of a combustion reaction. Measured and calculated ΔH values are related to bond energies by: ΔH = energy used in bond breaking reactions − energy released in bond making products An energy profile of an exothermic reaction by definition the enthalpy change has a negative value: ΔH < 0 in an exothermic reaction, gives a negative value for ΔH, since a larger value (the energy released in the reaction) is subtracted from a smaller value (the energy used for the reaction). For example, when hydrogen burns: 2H2 + O2 → 2H2O ΔH = −483.6 kJ/mol of O2
Thermite is a pyrotechnic composition of a metal powder and a metal oxide that produces an exothermic oxidation-reduction reaction known as a thermite reaction. If aluminium is the reducing agent it is called an aluminothermic reaction. Most varieties are not explosive, but can create bursts of extremely high temperatures focused on a very small area for a short period of time. The thermite is simply a mixture of metal, often called the "fuel" and an oxidizer. Its form of action is very similar to other fuel-oxidizer mixtures like black powder. Thermites can be a diverse class of compositions. Some "fuels" that can be used include aluminium, magnesium, titanium, zinc, silicon, boron and others. One commonly-used fuel in thermite mixtures is aluminium, because of its high boiling point. The oxidizers can be boron(III) oxide, silicon(IV) oxide, chromium(III) oxide, manganese(IV) oxide, iron(III) oxide, iron(II,III) oxide, copper(II) oxide, and lead(II,III,IV) oxide and others
Asbestos (pronounced /æsˈbɛstəs/ or /æzˈbɛstəs/) is a set of six naturally occurring silicate minerals used commercially for their desirable physical properties. They all have in common their eponymous, asbestiform habit: long (ca. 1:20 aspect ratio), thin fibrous crystals. continued
Tremolite is a member of the amphibole group of silicate minerals with composition: Ca2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2. Tremolite forms by metamorphism of sediments rich in dolomite and quartz. Tremolite forms a series with actinolite and ferro-actinolite. Pure magnesium tremolite is creamy white, but the color grades to dark green with increasing iron content. It has a hardness on Mohs scale of 5 to 6. Nephrite, one of the two minerals of the gemstone jade, is a green variety of tremolite. The fibrous form of tremolite is one of the six recognised types of asbestos. This material is toxic and inhaling the fibers can lead to asbestosis, lung cancer and both pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma. Fibrous tremolite is sometimes found as a contaminant in vermiculite, chrysotile (itself a type of asbestos) and talc.
ALICE is a rocket propellant which consists of nanoaluminum powder and water. After mixing, the material is frozen to keep it stable. Hence, the name ALICE, for ALuminum ICE rocket propellant.
Originally posted by SplitInfinity
reply to post by knightsofcydonia
It has to do with the ability for H20 in liquid state that is contained in specificaly designed plastic bottle to remain a liquid due to the way the H20 Molecules in their liquid form have been stacked by the bottles design. The moment that he turns it upside down...the air at the top disrupts that H20 stacking and water tension to the multiple bowed out levels of the plastic bottle.
The bottle has been designed this way as a way to prevent freezing and subsequent expansion of the Ice Formation and the Plastic Bottle will crack open. If the bottle is designed like a standard long neck beer bottle without the multiple bowed out donut like ridges...it will crack open...but if it has multiple bowed up donut like ridges...it will nor turn to ice. Crystals of Water need to expand in their formation...without the ability to do so not because of area but because of the the way the geometric bottle design is using both surface tension as well as spreading out the weight of the water in a manner of placing as much water in contact with the plastic causing surface tension....crystals will not form...turn upside down...air runs through and Crystals form and you get ice.
Vermiculite, an ore found in the area in 1881, had been mined in the area since 1919. In 1919, E.N. Alley bought the Rainy Creek claims and started the Zonolite Company. Zonolite is a branded trademark product made from vermiculite. W. R. Grace and Company bought the Zonolite mine in 1963. Previously, logging was the leading source of employment in Libby. In 1999, the Seattle Post-Intelligencer published a series of articles documenting extensive deaths and illness from the asbestos contaminated vermiculite at Grace's former mine. Federal Government investigators subsequently found that air samples from the area had high levels of fibrous tremolite asbestos, which is suspected to have caused asbestos related ailments among former Zonolite employees and their family members. More than 274 area deaths are suspected to have been caused by asbestos-related diseases, and 17% of the residents who participated in the ATSDR screening study in Libby were found to have pleural abnormalities, which may be related to exposure to asbestos. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been overseeing the removal of asbestos-contaminated soils and other suspect materials in and near Libby since May 2000, and has spent $370 million in Superfund money on cleanup. On June 11, 2008, the EPA and the Department of Health and Human Services launched an $8 million investigation into the effects of asbestos exposure on the people of Libby. In 2008 a $60 million settlement was reached with an unspecified number of owners of homes and businesses throughout the United States who used insulation products made by Grace & Co. The attics were insulated with Zonolite, which contained vermiculite that was contaminated with asbestos. Two documentary films, Libby, Montana, and Dust to Dust, and four books (An Air That Kills by Andrew Schneider and David McCumber, Libby, Montana: Asbestos and the Deadly Silence of an American Corporation by Andrea Peacock, and Wasting Libby: The True Story of How the WR Grace Corporation Left a Montana Town to Die (and Got Away with It) by Andrea Peacock, and Fatal Deception by Michael Bowker) have been written regarding the asbestos issue in Libby. In February 2005 the Federal Government began a criminal conspiracy prosecution of Grace and of seven current and former Grace employees. The government alleged that Grace conspired to hide from employees and the town residents the asbestos dangers and that it knowingly released asbestos into the environment. On May 8, 2009, a jury found W.R. Grace & Co. and the accused employees not guilty on all counts, ending what was called the biggest environmental-crime prosecution in U.S. history. On June 17, 2009 the EPA declared its first public health emergency. This emergency covers Libby and nearby Troy. It will provide an additional $130 million in cleanup and medical assistance. The 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act includes a provision which would expand Medicare payments to victims of such public health
According to Tabari, one of the curious items belonging to Khosrow II Parviz, the great Sassanian king (r. 531–579), was a napkin that he cleaned by simply throwing it into fire. This is believed to be made of asbestos. (This is also mentioned in The New Encyclopædia Britannica, vol. 6, 2003, page 843). Wealthy Persians, who bought asbestos imported over the Hindu Kush, amazed guests by cleaning the cloth by simply exposing it to fire. According to Biruni in his book of Gems, any cloths made of asbestos (Persian: آذرشست, āzarshost) were called (Persian: شستكه) shostakeh. Some of the Persians believed the fiber was fur from an animal (named samandar, Persian: سمندر) that lived in fire and died when exposed to water, hence the old mistaken myth that the salamander tolerated fire.
Originally posted by SplitInfinity
Take a Can or Bottle of Beer and place it in a Freezer sideways...it will crack open. Place a Microwavable Cup of water in a Microwave and place the Microwave on high for 5 minutes. The Water will not boil...drop a single grain of sand into the cup and the Cup of Water will literally EXPLODE!
When Water is placed in a Bottle that has settled the water into releasing any air bubbles plus the Plastic Bottle is ridged such as this one...the Water will not freeze until the air at the top is forced to travel through the Water...it begins to freeze...the freezing can be hastened by the bottles design although there is a correleation to Bottle Design and tem. at which water will eventually freeze. Split Infinity