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Every computer, modem, server and smart phone that connects to the Internet has a unique Internet protocol (IP) address, so users can find it. The address format, known as IPv4, was standardized in 1977 as a 32-digit binary number, making a then-seemingly unlimited 4.3 billion addresses (2^32) available.
They're all used up.
All but the oldest computers and phones have been configured to handle both schemes, but "home gateways—the DSL modems or cable modems—may not be," says Geoff Huston, chief scientist for the Asia–Pacific regional registry. And the IPv6 option in your computer or phone may not be turned on. In these cases, if you try to access an IPv6 address on June 8, you will either experience a delay of up to 75 seconds, as your system finds its way to the IPv4 address for the site you're trying to reach—or you may just never connect.
In 2008, IPv6 accounted for a minuscule fraction of the used addresses and the traffic in the publicly-accessible Internet which is still dominated by IPv4. In October 2010, 243 (83%) of the 294 top-level domains (TLDs) in the Internet supported IPv6 to access their domain name servers, and 203 (69%) zones contained IPv6 glue records, and approximately 1.4 million domains (1%) had IPv6 address records in their zones. Of all networks in the global BGP routing table, 7.2% have IPv6 protocol support.
The 2008 Summer Olympic Games were a notable event in terms of IPv6 deployment, being the first time a major world event has had a presence on the IPv6 Internet at ipv6.beijing2008.cn... and all network operations of the Games were conducted using IPv6. At the time of the event, it was believed that the Olympics provided the largest showcase of IPv6 technology since the inception of IPv6. Since that time, major providers of Internet services, such as Google, have begun to implement IPv6 access into their products.
Some implementations of the BitTorrent peer-to-peer file transfer protocol make use of IPv6 to avoid NAT issues common for IPv4 private networks.
All major operating systems in use as of 2010 on personal computers and server systems have production quality IPv6 implementations. Microsoft Windows has supported IPv6 since Windows 2000, and in production ready state beginning with Windows XP. Windows Vista and later have improved IPv6 support. Mac OS X Panther (10.3), Linux 2.6, FreeBSD, and Solaris also have mature production implementations.
IPv6 - Wiki