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The cosmic web is not a thing we can directly observe since its 3d structure is derived from red shift data to indicate the relative distance of galaxies, as well as their apparent position in the sky. When you pull all this together, the resulting 3d structure seems like a complex web of galactic cluster filaments interconnecting at supercluster nodes and interspersed by huge voids. These voids are bubble-like – so that we talk about structures like the Sloan Great Wall, as being the outer surface of such a bubble. And we also talk about the whole cosmic web being ‘foamy’.
It is speculated that the great voids or bubbles, around which the cosmic web seems to be organised, formed out of tiny dips in the primordial energy density (which can be seen in the cosmic microwave background), although a convincing correlation remains to be demonstrated.
It may be that much of the growing separation between galaxies is a result of expansion of the void bubbles, rather than equal expansion everywhere. It’s as though once gravity loses its grip between distant structures – expansion (or dark energy, if you like) takes over and that gap begins to expand unchecked – while elsewhere, clusters and superclusters of galaxies still manage to hold together. This scenario remains consistent with Edwin Hubble’s finding that the large majority of galaxies are rushing away from us, even if they are not all equally rushing away from each other.