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Tardigrades are polyextremophiles and are able to survive in extreme environments that would kill almost any other animal. Some can survive temperatures of -273°C (-460 °F), close to absolute zero, temperatures as high as 151 °C (303 °F), 1,000 times more radiation than other animals, and almost a decade without water. In September 2007, tardigrades were taken into low Earth orbit on the FOTON-M3 mission and for 10 days were exposed to the vacuum of space. After they were returned to Earth, it was discovered that many of them survived and laid eggs that hatched normally, making these the only animals known to be able to survive the vacuum of space.
The most convenient place to find tardigrades is on lichens and mosses. Other environments are dunes, beaches, soil, and marine or freshwater sediments, where they may occur quite frequently (up to 25,000 animals per litre).
reply to post by Gorman91
That's an incorrect view of quantum mechanics. The viewer effects a reaction because the viewer's photons from his eyes hit things and effect them. Consciousness does not effect anything. It is the act of firing a photon at something to see it which causes observation to effect the reaction. You could literally be a brain dead vegetable. If you shoot a photon at it, it will change the outcome.
About 12 percent of the animals exposed to ultraviolet radiation revived after being put back in water, a puzzling find since researchers presume the sterilizing rays broke down the tardigrades' DNA.
"This type of radiation cuts the DNA strand effectively in most organisms," Jönsson told Discovery News.
Further tests are needed to determine if indeed the animals' genetic material was indeed damaged and what sort of mechanisms tardigrades have to make such unprecedented repairs.
Originally posted by Copernicus
Originally posted by Byrd
2. These experiments HAVE been done before (rigorously and frequently) by many others and life doesn't form.
5. If we try to replicate the experiment (and make sure everything is sterile including the tube and the sand and water really ARE sterilized), we can run it many millions of times and no DNA will result.
Please provide sources for this information. I hope you understand that lots of people here tend to claim things without backing it up.
Personally I have had difficulties locating further information about similar experiments.
Originally posted by jjjtir
How can you say Ignacio Enrique Ochoa Pacheco is not a neurobiologist?
Have you not seen his 1989 thesis from the Venezuelan Universidad de Los Andes which is at the last page 1 post?
He didn't get his degree from a fake university, but at a credentialed, certified and accredited university in Venezuela.
Titled as "Reconstrucción in vitro de la corteza motora de ratón".
Record at the university's cataloging system.
Originally posted by Jim Scott
This topic brings into question the condition we know as "sterile." When it comes to scientific experiments, especially those looking for life, how can one know that their experiement is sterile? Certainly these conditions should have sterilized the environment.
Originally posted by Phage
reply to post by spikey
Can you provide more information about organisms surviving exposure to space? I haven't seen anything about that.
Originally posted by Byrd
The numbering on the photos (which appear genuine) is also rather interesting. The numbers aren't sequential and they imply that there's at least 1100 photos. I find that odd.
#001006 appears to show pollen similar to this (this plant isn't native to Venezuela. I suspect any botanist who studies pollens in Venezuela can identify the "life form" in a heartbeat.)
I'd bet you a chocolate bar that any scientist who regularly works with electron microscopy can identify the items.
Originally posted by Byrd
4. The chemical components in DNA aren't to be found in sand (silicon dioxide), though some of them are found in water.
Serpentinization and the inorganic synthesis of H2 in planetary surfaces
The near-surface inorganic synthesis of molecular hydrogen (H2) is a fundamental process relevant to the origins and to the sustenance of early life on Earth and potentially other planets. Hydrogen production through the decomposition of water is thought to be a principal reaction that occurs during hydrothermal alteration of olivine, an iron–magnesium silicate abundant near planetary surfaces. We demonstrate that copious amounts of H2 are produced only when the olivine undergoing alteration (serpentinization) contains 1 to 50 mol% iron over a variety of planetary surface P–T conditions. This suggests that extrasolar Earth-like planets that are hosted by a star with iron contents up to two times the solar value could support life provided they are hydrothermally active and fall within the habitable zone around the star.
Survival of lichens and bacteria exposed to outer space conditions – Results of the Lithopanspermia experiments ....In the space experiments Lithopanspermia, experimental support was provided to the likelihood of the lithopanspermia concept that considers a viable transport of microorganisms between the terrestrial planets by means of meteorites. The rock colonising lichens Rhizocarpon geographicum and Xanthoria elegans, the vagrant lichen Aspicilia fruticulosa, and endolithic and endoevaporitic communities of cyanobacteria and bacteria with their natural rock substrate were exposed to space for 10 days onboard the Biopan facility of the European Space Agency (ESA). Biopan was closed during launch and re-entry. In addition, in the Stone facility, one sample of R. geographicum on its natural granitic substrate was attached at the outer surface of the re-entry capsule close to the stagnation point, only protected by a thin cover of glass textolite. Post-flight analysis, which included determination of the photosynthetic activity, LIVE/DEAD staining, and germination capacity of the ascospores, demonstrated that all three lichen were quite resistant to outer space conditions, which include the full spectrum of solar extraterrestrial electromagnetic radiation or selected wavelength ranges. This high resistance of the lichens to space appears to be due to their symbiotic nature and protection by their upper pigmented layer, the cortex. In contrast, the rock- or halite-inhabiting bacteria were severely damaged by the same exposure. After atmospheric re-entry, the granite of the Stone sample was transformed into a glassy, nearly homogenous material, with several friction striae. None of the lichen cells survived this re-entry process. The data suggest that lichens are suitable candidates for testing the concept of lithopanspermia, because they are extremely resistant to the harsh environment of outer space. The more critical event is the atmospheric re-entry after being captured by a planet. Experiments simulating the re-entry process of a microbe-carrying meteoroid did not show any survivors.