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african/killer bees kill failed killing honey bees mistake
Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) or sometimes honey bee depopulation syndrome (HBDS) is a phenomenon in which worker bees from a beehive or European honey bee colony abruptly disappear. While such disappearances have occurred throughout the history of apiculture, the term colony collapse disorder was first applied to a drastic rise in the number of disappearances of Western honey bee colonies in North America in late 2006. Colony collapse is economically significant because many agricultural crops worldwide are pollinated by bees.
Beginning in October 2006, some beekeepers began reporting losses of 30-90 percent of their hives. While colony losses are not unexpected during winter weather, the magnitude of loss suffered by some beekeepers was highly unusual. This phenomenon, which currently does not have a recognizable underlying cause, has been termed "Colony Collapse Disorder" (CCD). The main symptom of CCD is simply no or a low number of adult honey bees present but with a live queen and no dead honey bees in the hive. Often there is still honey in the hive, and immature bees (brood) are present.
In the fall of 2006, a loud, new buzz began among beekeepers in a number of countries when managed honey bee colonies began to disappear in large numbers without known reason. By February 2007, the syndrome, which is characterized by the disappearance of all adult honey bees in a hive while immature bees and honey remain, had been christened “colony collapse disorder” (CCD). Some beekeepers reported losses of 30-90 percent of their hives during the 2006 winter. While colony losses are not unexpected during winter weather, the magnitude of loss suffered by these beekeepers was highly unusual.
Africanized honey bees, known usually as the "killer bee", are hybrids of the African honey bee (not A. m. adansonii; see Collet et al., 2006), with various European honey bees such as the Italian bee A. m. ligustica and A. m. iberiensis. These bees are far more aggressive than the European subspecies. Small swarms of AHBs are capable of taking over European honey beehives by invading the hive and establishing their own queen after killing the European queen.
The Latest Research on Africanized Honey Bees By Kim Kaplan March 2, 2004 While Hollywood has made Africanized honey bees a frightening villain of mythic proportions since the 1950s, the Agricultural Research Service has been helping people learn the best ways to live with them in the real world. Africanized honey bees (AHBs)--also melodramatically labeled "killer bees"--are the result of honey bees brought from Africa to Brazil in 1956 in hopes of breeding a bee better adapted to the South American tropical climate. They reached the Brazilian wilds in 1957 and then spread south and north until they arrived in this country in 1990.
White nose syndrome (WNS) is a poorly understood malady associated with the deaths of more than a million bats. The condition, named for a distinctive ring of fungal growth around the muzzles and on the wings of many affected animals, was first identified in a cave in Schoharie County, New York in February 2006, and started showing up in the news after January 2007. It spread to other New York caves and into Vermont, Massachusetts and Connecticut in 2008. In early 2009 it was confirmed in New Hampshire, New Jersey, Pennsylvania,, West Virginia  and in March 2010 in Ontario, Canada, and northern Tennessee. The condition has been found in over 25 caves and mines in the northeastern U.S.
A mysterious fungus is killing off thousands of bats around the country. Scientists are calling it white-nose syndrome, because of the distinctive white smudges on the noses and wings of infected bats.
Antigenic variation is the process by which an infectious organism alters its surface proteins in order to evade a host immune response. Antigenic variation not only enables immune evasion but also allows pathogens to cause reinfection as they are not recognised by the host's immune system. When an organism is exposed to a particular antigen (i.e. a protein on the surface of a bacterium) an immune response is stimulated and antibodies are generated to target that specific antigen. The immune system will then "remember" that particular antigen (immunological memory) and if the host is exposed to that same antigen again, those antibodies will act rapidly to destroy the pathogen. However, if the antigen is changed, the host's immune system will not recognise it and the pathogen can cause infection again whilst the immune system generates new antibodies to target the new antigen. Antigenic variation enables viruses to cross the species barrier (e.g. H5N1 virus "jumping" from birds to then infect humans). Finally, it also allows pathogens to establish persistent infections in their host.
Antigenic variation in protozoa is best demonstrated by species of the genus Plasmodium (responsible for causing malaria) and the trypanosomes (Trypanosoma cruzi which causes Chagas Disease and T. brucei gambiense and T. brucei rhodesiense which both cause African Sleeping Sickness). Plasmodium species carry out antigenic polymorphism and the trypanosomes variate one surface protein called the variant surface glycoprotein (VSG). The number of VSGs that a trypanosome can produce (referred to as the repertoire of VSGs) can vary from 100 to 1000.
Impact on existing apiculture In areas of suitable temperate climate, the survival traits of African queens and colonies outperform western honey bee colonies. This competitive edge leads to the dominance of African traits. In Brazil, the African hybrids are known as Assassin Bees, for their habit of taking over an existing hive of European bees; this habit is most evident when the hive being attacked has a weakened queen, so not all hives are equally vulnerable, and overall rates of hive usurpation can reach 20%. Africanized bees have not been affected by colony collapse disorder like the managed bees. They will probably become the niche for pollinators should the other bee species go extinct.