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One effect of the panic was the strengthening of U.S. satellites against
radiation that in the end would help shield them from ground-based laser
attacks. According to U.S. intelligence sources, who asked not to be named,
such attacks damaged super-sophisticated American spy satellites deployed to
monitor missile and spacecraft launches at the major Russian space center.
In 1976, a KH-11 or Code 1010 satellite was "painted" by a Soviet laser
and sustained "permanent damage," according to a senior Air Force official.
This source said that such paintings continued into the late 1980s.
Air Force officials told UPI that for years the Soviets had a
"battle-ready" ground-based laser at Saryshagan that they said they believed
had been involved in past blindings of U.S. spacecraft.
But the result of the "hosings" of U.S. equipment was positive. The United
States moved quickly to install laser warning receivers on its newest
generation of low-orbit spacecraft, U.S. intelligence sources said. The
receivers have allowed time for evasive action and have assisted ground
controllers seeking to prove the Soviets had inflicted the damage.
One State Dept. analyst said that the whole Star Wars system of the Reagan
presidency was the result of Soviets "messing around with our satellites."
To power the laser system the satellite received two turbine generators, and the laser gun itself was placed in the fairing moved to the fuselage. This fairing was located between the trailing edge of the wing and the fin.
Since late 1960s, the Soviet Union was working on development of ground laser systems for anti-satellite defense and pumping from nuclear explosions. Unlike the Roentgen laser of Teller, such lasers were reusable. One of such lasers was probably built near Dushanbe. In different periods Yu. Babaev and Yu. Ablekov supervised the work on such laser, but due to the unilateral moratorium announced by the USSR, and the followed mysterious deaths of both engineers the work on such lasers was suspended in the mid-1980s.
In 1994-1995, The High Temperatures Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences sold the Pamir-3U mobile electric generator to the United States. The Pamir-3U had an output of 15 megawatt, dimensions of 2.5 x 2.65 x 10 meters, and weighed about 20 tons. The generator could be used in Russia (USSR) on the ground or in outer space for power supply to long-range laser and super high frequency weapon systems.
The Soviet Union also worked on designing of an "orbital fortress" based on a space station of the Mir type. Modules of the aiming system served as the side blocks of the station. The side blocks were attached to the basic module. The blocks were to be delivered to the station in cargo compartments of the Buran shuttle orbiter. The station was intended for killing of warheads of ballistic missiles from outer space when the crew was on board.
Weighing just 300 grams and around 15 centimeters long, Stream looks more like a pocket flashlight than a crowd-control weapon. In fact, it looks so ordinary that, at first glance, one would think it was just one of those laser pointers you can easily find down at Sennaya Ploshchad.
But Stream's country of origin should perhaps not come as a surprise. A July 1996 U.S. intelligence report, entitled Worldwide Laser Capabilities - obtained by Human Rights Watch under the Freedom of Information Act - even stated that "Russia leads the world in the development of laser blinding weapons."
With previous laser weapons, it was found that there was no middle ground between causing blindness or death with a laser at full power, and having almost no effect when the laser was weak.
Mikhailin said that one Stream laser could cost from $100 to $1,000 or more, depending on the power required.
QUESTION FROM REPORTER: "Was it really worth it to send people to their death for this? To get Noriega?"
* "Fourteen years after a formal ban on U.S. assassinations of foreign officials, the Bush administration is now redefining its language to permit clandestine operations even if they threaten the lives of foreign figures...Officials concede that it would significantly expand the types of military operations the administration can launch against foreign targets such as terrorists, drug lords or Panamanian strongman Manuel A. Noriega." --LAT, 10/14/89, "U.S. OKs Covert Operations That May Kill Foreigners"
The U.S.. media again performed a masterful job of being the unofficial official news organ for the U.S. government and its policies. No matter how illegal, barbaric, arrogant, irrational, or psychotic the policies, they are reported with enthusiasm, almost gleefully, and with little or no critical commentary. The media was excellent in serving the official public relations function for the invasion. The U.S. government provided the information and controlled virtually all images in order to marshal public, Congressional, and local media support for the invasion.
The lack of critical assessment by the U.S. media was extraordinary, though certainly not unusual.. The fact that a military force invaded a sovereign nation in violation of every legal principle and moral standard, killing, injuring and detaining thousands of Panamanian citizens, should catalyze an outrage with headlines such as "U.S. Murders and Maims Thousands," or "U.S. Barbarism Reigns," or "U.S. Invasion Violates International Law,"
Boston Herald (Paul Sherman)
Seattle Post-Intelligencer (William Arnold)
Originally posted by amanbuthimself
I was actually in Panama a couple of months ago. It wouldn't suprise me. Panama City is still largely in ruins.
Originally posted by Wembley
Huh? I was there a few years ago and didn't see any ruins.
The number of civilian deaths is hardly a secret - just not widely publicised in the US.
As for Noriega 'getting away,' he's currently doing 40 years in a Flordia prison -
These beam weapons seem to be mythical.
It's easy to quote 'this guy in a bar said' stories, but without anything to back it up, it's just more pixie dust.
Look at the lack of progress in laser wqeapons in the last 20 years and the billions poured into the ABL (...still not working, years behind schedule) and you'll see what I mean.
Solid state lasers are coming along nicely at last, but they're a long way from cutting cars in half yet.
Sources notwithstanding? Any chance you will look at the additional 30 odd i can offer?
I do however think that the ABL and other programs are kept in this state of perpetual failure on purpose so as to best hide the fact that it's i use both in space&earth by a number of countries.
Based on what i mean? Why do you think SSL's are still that useless?
Originally posted by Wembley
Sure. But the ones above do not indicate high power lasers.
Manned seven crew. Deployed ERBS; performed high resolution Earth imagery. Payloads: Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) deployment, Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications (OSTA)-3 experiments, Large Format Camera (LFC). First use of Orbital Refueling System (ORS) with extravehicular activity (EVA) astronauts, IMAX camera. In response to the American Strategic Defence Initiative and continued military use of the shuttle, the Soviet Union fired a 'warning shot' from the Terra-3 laser complex at Sary Shagan. The facility tracked Challenger with a low power laser on 10 October 1984. This caused malfunctions to on-board equipment and discomfort / temporary blinding of the crew, leading to a US diplomatic protest.
THe anti-satellite weapons are simply used to blind,
and the Russian Potok (Stream) is just a lower-powered laser dazzler.
That's pure conspiracy theory, unless you have anything to back it up.
There are a lot of people working on those programs,
I really can't see them deliberately failing badly on such a scale and wasting billions. ((There is a lot of competition for that money!)
BI didn't say they were useless: I think they're already a lot more useful than chemical lasers.
But they certainly can't cut cars in half, and I don't think anyone will bother developing one that can.
It wouldn't have a lot of miltiary utility compared to, say, an effective pulse laser.
Hydrogen Fluoride Laser. The hydrogen fluoride laser operates much like a rocket engine. In the laser cavity, atomic fluorine reacts with molecular hydrogen to produce excited hydrogen fluorine molecules. The resulting laser produces several simultaneous wavelengths in the range of 2.7 microns and 2.9 microns. The laser beam, at these wavelengths, is mostly absorbed by the earth's atmosphere and can only be used above the earth's atmosphere.47 This laser is the leading contender for the Space-Based Laser (SBL) program.
The Ballistic Missile Defense Organization continues to support the hydrogen fluoride laser for space-based defenses.48 The Alpha program, originally funded by Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in the 1980s, then the Strategic Defense Initiative Office (SDIO), and now BMDO, has successfully demonstrated a megawatt power laser in a low-pressure, simulated space environment.49 The design is compatible with a space environment, is directly scalable to the size required for a space-based laser, and produces the power and beam quality specified in the SDIO plan in 1984.50 This laser has been integrated with optical systems from the Large Advanced Mirror Program, described later, and has been test fired at the TRW San Juan Capistrano test facility in California.
The Mid-Infrared Advanced Chemical Laser (MIRACL), built by TRW Inc., is a deuterium fluoride laser that is capable of power in excess of one megawatt.53 The system was first operational in 1980 and since then has accumulated over 3,600 seconds of lasing time.54 This laser system has been integrated with a system called the SEALITE Beam Director, which is a large pointing telescope for high-energy lasers, and in 1996 successfully shot down a rocket at the U.S. Army's High-Energy Laser Systems Test Facility at the White Sands Missile Range.55