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The atmosphere of the planet Mars is composed mostly of carbon dioxide. The atmospheric pressure on the Martian surface averages 600 pascals (0.087 psi; 6.0 mbar), about 0.6% of Earth's mean sea level pressure of 101.3 kilopascals (14.69 psi; 1.013 bar). It ranges from a low of 30 pascals (0.0044 psi; 0.30 mbar) on Olympus Mons's peak to over 1,155 pascals (0.1675 psi; 11.55 mbar) in the depths of Hellas Planitia. This pressure is well below the Armstrong limit for the unprotected human body. Mars's atmospheric mass of 25 teratonnes compares to Earth's 5148 teratonnes; Mars has a scale height of 11.1 kilometres (6.9 mi) versus Earth's 8.5 kilometres (5.3 mi).
Even at the equator, the night time temperatures fall well below zero. On those summer days, it can be around 20 degrees Celsius then plummet to -90 C at night.
Carbon Dioxide as a Greenhouse Gas
In the atmosphere, carbon dioxide contributes with other molecules to the greenhouse effect. Energy from the sun gets reflected by the surface of the earth, and in the process it is transformed into a wavelength more easily intercepted by greenhouse gases, trapping the heat within the atmosphere instead of letting it reflect out into space. Carbon dioxide’s contribution to the greenhouse effect varies between 10 and 25 % depending on the location, immediately behind water vapor.
An Upward Trend
The concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere has varied over time, with significant ups and downs experienced by the planet over geological times. If we look at the last millennia however we see a steep rise in carbon dioxide clearly starting with the industrial revolution. Since pre-1800 estimates the CO2 concentrations have risen by over 42% to current levels over 400 parts per million (ppm), driven by the burning of fossil fuels and by land clearing.
Earth has increased by about 0.8° Celsius (1.4° Fahrenheit) since 1880.
Earth's atmosphere is 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 0.9% argon, and 0.03% carbon dioxide with very small percentages of other elements. Our atmosphere also contains water vapor. In addition, Earth's atmosphere contains traces of dust particles, pollen, plant grains and other solid particles
The effect of adding man-made CO2 is predicted in the theory of greenhouse gases. This theory was first proposed by Swedish scientist Svante Arrhenius in 1896, based on earlier work by Fourier and Tyndall. Many scientist have refined the theory in the last century. Nearly all have reached the same conclusion: if we increase the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, the Earth will warm up.
Problem #2—None of these table top “greenhouse effect in a bottle” experiments test CO2 at 560 ppm vs. CO2 at 280ppm The big debate about CO2’s effect on global surface-level air temperatures is what will happen when atmospheric CO2 doubles in concentration from pre-industrial times, i.e., increases from 0.026% (280 ppm) of the atmosphere to 0.056% (560 ppm). Yes, 0.056% is a “doubling” of the amount of CO2 in the air from pre-industrial times but it is still a minute amount. None of these table-top “greenhouse effect in a bottle” experiments test the effect of a CO2 level of 0.056% vs. a CO2 level of 0.026%. They all test CO2 levels of 50-100% compared to regular air and even then on average they still only get a temperature rise of several degrees due to CO2‘s lower specific heat. Based on computer models, the “climate sensitivity of carbon dioxide” hypothesis asserts that a doubling of CO2 levels from pre-industrial times, from ~260 ppm to ~560 ppm, will result in 2-6 °C of global warming. These table top “greenhouse effect in a bottle” experiments demonstrate that the atmosphere would have to be 50-100% CO2 (500,000 – 1,000,000 ppm) to get that much warming but even then the extra warming would not be from a “greenhouse effect”, but rather would be a result of CO2’s lower specific heat value.
Why does CO2 get most of the attention when there are so many other heat-trapping gases?
CO2 has caused most of the warming and its influence is expected to continue
CO2 has contributed more than any driver to climate change between 1750 and 2011.
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) issued a global climate assessment in 2013 that compared the influence of three changes to the environment resulting from human activity between 1750 and 2011: the emission of key heat-trapping gases and tiny particles known as aerosols, as well as land use change.
By measuring the abundance of heat-trapping gases in ice cores, the atmosphere, and other climate drivers along with models, the IPCC calculated the “radiative forcing” (RF) of each climate driver—in other words, the net increase (or decrease) in the amount of energy reaching Earth’s surface attributable to that climate driver.
According to the Arrhenius equation for calculating how CO2 catches heat the warming on Mars should be larger. “The Mars atmosphere is highly amenable to empirical testing of Arrhenius’ equation because its climate-system contains no real significant feedback-mechanisms to complicate or modify the direct and immediate response of the CO2 in terms of the amount of radiative forcing that it is supposed to produce”. When the Arrhenius equation is applied to the planet of Mars things go horribly wrong. There the observed global warming (according to NASA’s revised Fact Sheet) is about 0.2°K (or about 0.5 W/m2). The revised NASA data shows an effective temperature for Mars of 209.8°K (See NASA Mars Fact Sheet) and an average global surface temperature of ~210°K. This is interesting when one considers that Mars has a CO2 density approximately 27 times higher than on Earth — at 165 kg/m2 and 6 kg/m2 respectively and on Earth CO2 is claimed to increase the global average surface temperature by 6°K (or 32 W/m2). The CO2 on Mars apparently produces 30 times less warming despite being 27 times more abundant.
originally posted by: Metallicus
It is all BS.
It is about the Global Elites trying to control all us useless eaters and nothing more. The fact that there are still people that think this is about the planet warming just shows how stupid people can be.
originally posted by: dubiousatworst
Anyone want to talk about the rate at which CO2 effects temperature changes?
Just a little FYI, the more CO2 the less overall effect each additional ppm causes. The reason for this has to do with the wavelengths that CO2 absorbs, and at some point it has absorbed nearly all of the energy in the wavelengths it absorbs.
Carbon Dioxide Is Warming the Planet (Here's How)
Overall, they found that greenhouse gas radiation had increased by 3.5 watts per square meter compared with preindustrial times, a rise of just over 2 percent. Other researchers have noted "missing" infrared wavelengths in radiation into space, a phenomenon that happens because these missing wavelengths get stuck in the atmosphere.
If the extraterrestrial solar radiation is 1367 watts per square meter (the value when the Earth–Sun distance is 1 astronomical unit), then the direct sunlight at Earth's surface when the Sun is at the zenith is about 1050 W/m2, but the total amount (direct and indirect from the atmosphere) hitting the ground is around 1120 W/m2. In terms of energy, sunlight at Earth's surface is around 52 to 55 percent infrared (above 700 nm), 42 to 43 percent visible (400 to 700 nm), and 3 to 5 percent ultraviolet (below 400 nm).
Materials That Absorb Infrared Rays
Earth’s atmosphere absorbs the majority of the IR radiation that comes from the sun. In addition, carbon dioxide, ozone and oxygen also absorb much of the IR radiation, allowing very little to actually reach the ground. Aside from water vapor, bodies of water on the surface of the Earth also absorb IR wavelengths well. Glass, Plexiglas, wood, brick, stone, asphalt and paper all absorb IR radiation. While regular silver-backed mirrors reflect visible light waves, allowing you to see your reflection, they absorb infrared radiation. Gold, manganese and copper also absorb IR radiation well. According to Next Energy News, the U.S. Department of Energy is using these three metals to design nanoantennas, which will convert waste heat in the form of IR radiation into electricity.