This is the fifth thread in the series on the ABC Preon Model. Links to earlier threads will appear in the comment below.
At this point in our development we can now make an identification between the ABC preons and quarks. In the figure below, we again see a depiction of
the delta plus particle as understood by the ABC Preon Model, but I have placed rectangles around some of the components.
The rectangle drawn around the B preon, a binding neutrino, and a portion of the C preon is identified as a down quark. Rectangles drawn around an A
preon, a binding neutrino, and a portion of the C preon are identified as up quarks. In the ABC Preon Model, quarks don't actually exist as
particles. Instead, quarks are identified as quantum states involving the orbiting A and B preons and the central C preon. As with leptons, this
realization allows us to understand how generations of quarks come about in nature. The u and d quarks are the ground states of their respective
systems, while the strange quark is the first excited state of the orbiting B preon, and the bottom quark is the second excited state of the orbiting
B preon. Similarly, the charm quark is the first excited state of the orbiting A preon, and the top quark (should it exist, we'll discuss that in a
later post) would be the second excited state of the orbiting A preon.
With mesons known to be composed of quark antiquark pairs, we can now construct mesons in the ABC preon model by taking the relevant preons and
anti-preons and combining them appropriately. First, we see below how the pi mesons are modeled in the standard model as quarks bound to
In the ABC preon model, the u quark is seen two pictures up to be the state composed from an A preon bound to a C preon, and that structure appears in
some of the pi mesons has well. Also a d quark was seen to be composed of a B preon bound to a C preon. Moving to anti-quarks, the anti-down quark is
be proposed to be a B anti-preon bound to a C anti-preon, while the anti-up quark is an A anti-preon bound to a C anti-preon. The figure below shows
mesons as understood by the ABC Preon Model with boxes drawn around what are now known as quarks and anti-quarks.
In the above picture, I have introduced a notation where a line joining two preons or anti-preons is used to represent a binding neutrino. Since the C
preon has a neutrinic charge of plus 3, and its antimatter partner has a neutrinic charge of -3, a double bond appears between the C preon and its
anti-preon. Hence, a total of three bonds appear in the diagram above for both the C preon and the C anti-preon. Note that I have also used the
standard notation for anti-particles in the diagram, where a bar appearing above the letter indicates an anti-particle. The double bond between the C
preon and the C anti-preon is analogous to double bonds in chemistry, where atoms share electrons in chemical bonding. Here, the binding neutrinos
play the role that the binding electrons play in chemistry. Each C preon and anti-preon have three neutrino sites available for binding, while the A
and B preons and the A and B anti-preons each have a single neutrino site for binding.
Note that in the model proposed here, quarks are identified as simply being a notation for an energy level and type of binding between a C preon and
either an A or a B preon. And while it can be seen how massive leptons can be isolated as an A anti-preon bound to a B preon, it is clear that a quark
can never be isolated by itself since it is in reality the manifestation of a portion of a C preon bound to an A or a B preon. This explains why free
quarks have never been observed. Finally, note that in all of the modeling we have done so far, the rule has been that particles found in nature are
those that have zero total neutrinic charge. This fact was true for the modeling of massive leptons, and it is also true for baryons and mesons.
Hence, already in our development we have answered three questions about nature: 1) Why do generations of quarks and leptons exist? 2) Why can quarks
not be isolated? and 3) Why do only certain types of leptonic and hadronic matter form? As a subset of question 1, we can answer I.I. Rabi's question
about the muon (which was who ordered that?). The ABC Preon Model has clear answers to all of these questions, while also greatly reducing the number
of elementary particles required by nature.
So at this point in the development we can now formalize much about the constituents of the ABC Preon Model. The model consists of three preons. The A
preon has zero electric charge and a neutrinic charge of minus one. The B preon has an electric charge of minus one and a neutrinic charge of minus
one. And the C preon has an electric charge of plus two and a neutrinic charge of plus three. The anti-preons have the opposite charges of the preons.
Two force carriers have been proposed. The photon, which carries the electromagnetic force, and the neutrino, which carries the neutrinic force.
The particles of nature as described by the ABC Preon Model are shown in the drawing below.