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Scientists Discover New State of Matter Called "Time Crystals"

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posted on Mar, 8 2017 @ 09:45 PM
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A new state of matter called a time crystal has been created in the lab using two different methods by two different teams of scientists.


In regular crystals—an ice cube or a diamond, for instance—atoms are arranged in a repeating spatial pattern. In time crystals, patterns repeat in time instead of in space.



Two different teams of scientists reported the discovery in the journal Nature on Wednesday. They are the first to directly create and observe time crystals, the long-theorized quantum systems that spin at their own pace independent of their environment, seemingly breaking the rules of normal timekeeping.


This discovery could pave the way for quantum computers and quantum sensors.


To build a useful quantum computer, scientists have to increase the number of qubits, or quantum bits, a machine has. But as qubits increase, the probability qubits will lose coherence goes up. Coherence is a prerequisite for functioning quantum computers. For time crystals, that coherence “lasts for a very long time and the density of quantum bits is very big,” said Mikhail Lukin, a Harvard University quantum physicist who led one of the studies. The time crystals in both experiments lasted on the order of milliseconds before “melting,” much longer than expected for quantum systems with imperfections, he said.


The Wall Street Journal

A time crystal can never be in equilibrium with its environment. While normal crystals only crystallize in 3 dimensions, time crystals crystallize in 4 dimensions, meaning they are always in perpetual motion. Let's learn a little more about that.


Perpetual motion is motion of bodies that continues indefinitely. This is impossible because of friction and other energy-dissipating processes.[2][3][4] A perpetual motion machine is a hypothetical machine that can do work indefinitely without an energy source. This kind of machine is impossible, as it would violate the first or second law of thermodynamics.[3][4][5]



One classification of perpetual motion machines refers to the particular law of thermodynamics the machines purport to violate:[10]

A perpetual motion machine of the first kind produces work without the input of energy. It thus violates the first law of thermodynamics: the law of conservation of energy.

A perpetual motion machine of the second kind is a machine which spontaneously converts thermal energy into mechanical work. When the thermal energy is equivalent to the work done, this does not violate the law of conservation of energy. However, it does violate the more subtle second law of thermodynamics (see also entropy). The signature of a perpetual motion machine of the second kind is that there is only one heat reservoir involved, which is being spontaneously cooled without involving a transfer of heat to a cooler reservoir. This conversion of heat into useful work, without any side effect, is impossible, according to the second law of thermodynamics.

A perpetual motion machine of the third kind is usually (but not always)[11] defined as one that completely eliminates friction and other dissipative forces, to maintain motion forever (due to its mass inertia). (Third in this case refers solely to the position in the above classification scheme, not the third law of thermodynamics.) It is impossible to make such a machine,[12][13] as dissipation can never be completely eliminated in a mechanical system, no matter how close a system gets to this ideal (see examples in the Low Friction section).


Wikipedia: Perpetual Motion

So I wonder which kind of perpetual motion machine time crystals are?


Once set in motion, a time crystal could remain in motion forever, with no outside force needed to keep it going. This type of perpetual motion machine would not violate any known physical law because no energy could be extracted from the system without first adding energy. Such systems might even be arranged to convey information that would persist after everything else around them has died.


Instead of using energy to fuel its movement, a time crystal uses a break in the symmetry of time to fuel its movement. While a time crystal is always moving, its energy is zero.

Here is more detail on exactly what a time crystal is.



Wilczek says he started wondering whether the concept of an ordinary three-dimensional crystal could be extended to four dimensions, with the extra dimension that of time. A time crystal would spontaneously break what Wilczek calls "the mother of all symmetries"—the symmetry of time translation, which holds physical laws remains the same regardless of what time it is. A time crystal would change with time but keep coming back to the same form it began with, like a clock whose moving hands periodically return to their original positions.

The difference from an ordinary clock or other periodic process is that a time crystal, as with a spatial crystal, would be a state of minimum possible energy. At first glance, that poses a contradiction. A time crystal by definition must change with time in order to break time translation symmetry. But a system with minimum energy ordinarily can't move. If it could, then additional energy could still be extracted, until the system achieved a true minimum energy, a motionless state.


Scientific American

So what is all this talk about breaking symmetry?


When matter crystallizes, its atoms spontaneously organize themselves into the rows, columns and stacks of a three-dimensional lattice. An atom occupies each “lattice point,” but the balance of forces between the atoms prevents them from inhabiting the space between. Because the atoms suddenly have a discrete, rather than continuous, set of choices for where to exist, crystals are said to break the spatial symmetry of nature — the usual rule that all places in space are equivalent. But what about the temporal symmetry of nature — the rule that stable objects stay the same throughout time?


They might give insights into the theory of time, but how?


In Albert Einstein’s theory of general relativity (the body of laws governing gravity and the large-scale structure of the universe), the dimensions of time and space are woven together into the same fabric, known as space-time. But in quantum mechanics (the laws governing interactions on the subatomic scale), the time dimension is represented in a different way than the three dimensions of space — “a disturbing, aesthetically unpleasant asymmetry,” Zakrzewski said.



If time crystals are able to break time symmetry in the same way that conventional crystals break space symmetry, “it tells you that in nature those two quantities seem to have similar properties, and that ultimately should reflect itself in a theory,” Häffner said. This would suggest that quantum mechanics is inadequate, and that a better quantum theory might treat time and space as two threads of the same fabric.


Wired

It is definitely a bit hard for me to grasp, but seems worth looking into more.

edit on 08pmWed, 08 Mar 2017 21:53:01 -0600kbpmkAmerica/Chicago by darkbake because: (no reason given)




posted on Mar, 8 2017 @ 09:53 PM
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posted on Mar, 8 2017 @ 09:59 PM
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Called "Time Crystals"

I understand how someone can validate giving it that particular name, but c'mon....

A real Time Crystal would let the one wielding it the ability to go back in time and:

1. Bet copious amounts of cash on sporting events you knew the outcome of
2. Take the Dow Jones and precious metal market down town Julie brown!
3. And most of all, not make that left turn...



Good find OP




posted on Mar, 8 2017 @ 10:02 PM
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a reply to: darkbake

this was discussed back in January www.abovetopsecret.com...



posted on Mar, 8 2017 @ 10:04 PM
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Too smart for me. Can anyone break this down super simple?



posted on Mar, 8 2017 @ 10:10 PM
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a reply to: FamCore

It was, but damn did the OP lay it out in a way I understood it, it's absolutely fascinating, and yes I did remember bits and pieces from the January post, but just clicked so much better.

I can see Interstellar Communication Devices being created from these, among many other things. And it's implications of time is even more interesting.

Like time and space are more layers of the same blanket, resting on possibilities.

Now if they run on time, can we design devices to do the same?

Will these become time batteries?

----------

These crystals are created in such a way that they are ever growing or better yet ever arranging themselves, however they don't structurally last.

These are not using energy but are still perpetually moving, which rewrites our current laws of such, that moving requires energy.

If we could understand the how, we could possibly power things by time as well, or at the very least create a communication device that would be instant no matter the distance ( quantum entanglement ).

I'm going to have some fun dreams tonight now, time for some cheese before bed...
edit on 8-3-2017 by Tranceopticalinclined because: (no reason given)



posted on Mar, 8 2017 @ 10:19 PM
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Timex crystal movement watches. Cool



posted on Mar, 8 2017 @ 10:21 PM
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a reply to: darkbake


The time crystals in both experiments lasted on the order of milliseconds before “melting,” much longer than expected for quantum systems with imperfections, he said.

I guess, no time at all.



posted on Mar, 8 2017 @ 10:37 PM
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That's amazing! I think Jim Henson taught me this from his movie, the dark crystal.




posted on Mar, 8 2017 @ 10:39 PM
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a reply to: darkbake

I'll be honest. I've read several different articles on this, but I still have trouble conceptualizing the structure they describe.



posted on Mar, 8 2017 @ 10:46 PM
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a reply to: BestinShow

The one and only!


edit on 8-3-2017 by IgnoranceIsntBlisss because: (no reason given)



posted on Mar, 8 2017 @ 11:01 PM
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Can you snort time crystals?
That was my first thought.
I am a terrible person.



posted on Mar, 8 2017 @ 11:27 PM
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I think I can grasp the idea just about. It is something that feels like it may have huge implication in terms of future design and tech, I think.



posted on Mar, 8 2017 @ 11:28 PM
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a reply to: skunkape23

That'd burn like hell...... forever.



posted on Mar, 8 2017 @ 11:36 PM
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originally posted by: skunkape23
Can you snort time crystals?
That was my first thought.
I am a terrible person.


Time Crystals could cause the Mandella effect if they are numerous in the brain. That would explain why some people are constantly experiencing Mandella.



posted on Mar, 8 2017 @ 11:42 PM
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a reply to: carewemust

Hmm.



posted on Mar, 8 2017 @ 11:42 PM
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edit on 8-3-2017 by pfishy because: (no reason given)



posted on Mar, 8 2017 @ 11:44 PM
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Isn't that kind of like the Spice from 'Dune?'
Civilizations went to war over that stuff.



posted on Mar, 8 2017 @ 11:48 PM
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originally posted by: pfishy
a reply to: carewemust

Hmm.


Are the crystals strong with you, PFishy?



posted on Mar, 8 2017 @ 11:48 PM
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a reply to: skunkape23

Factions went to war over it. Civilization was built on it.




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