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Because the strength of the force falls off rapidly with distance, it is measurable only when the distance between the objects is extremely small. On a submicron scale, this force becomes so strong that it becomes the dominant force between uncharged conductors.
Empty space expands due to quantum fluctuations of zero-point energy (the energy that is "always there", no matter how empty space is), which produces a "foam" of virtual particles constantly popping in and out of existence.
The effects of vacuum energy can be experimentally observed in various phenomena such as spontaneous emission, the Casimir effect and the Lamb shift, and are thought to influence the behavior of the Universe on cosmological scales. Using the upper limit of the cosmological constant, the vacuum energy of free space has been estimated to be 10−9 joules (10−2 ergs) per cubic meter. However, in both quantum electrodynamics (QED) and stochastic electrodynamics (SED), consistency with the principle of Lorentz covariance and with the magnitude of the Planck constant requires it to have a much larger value of 10113 joules per cubic meter. This huge discrepancy is known as the vacuum catastrophe
In cosmology, the cosmological constant problem is the disagreement between measured values of the vacuum energy density (the small value of the cosmological constant) and the zero-point energy suggested by quantum field theory.
In physical cosmology and astronomy, dark energy is an unknown form of energy which is hypothesized to permeate all of space, tending to accelerate the expansion of the universe. Dark energy is the most accepted hypothesis to explain the observations since the 1990s indicating that the universe is expanding at an accelerating rate.
Assuming that the standard model of cosmology is correct,
the best current measurements indicate that dark energy contributes 68.3% of the total energy in the present-day observable universe. The mass–energy of dark matter and ordinary (baryonic) matter contribute 26.8% and 4.9%, respectively, and other components such as neutrinos and photons contribute a very small amount.
originally posted by: AttentionGrabber
a reply to: wildespace
There is no discovery and no proof, just a speculative theory mostly based on earlier assumed models.They themselves say that this region of space in which this repeller is supposed to be located has not been studied by redshift surveys, in other words there is nothing that proves this.
originally posted by: Redback
"the Milky Way is also being pushed from behind – most probably by a huge region of space almost completely empty of galaxies"
Can someone please explain how a huge region of emptiness is pushing our galaxy, how can "nothing" push something so massive as our galaxy???
And to go a little deeper, what is pushing the “dipole repeller”..?