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(The eyeball) ... has a hemispherical form and a diameter of just over 2.5 cm (1 inch). It consists of very light material, probably bitumen paste. The surface of the artificial eye is covered with a thin layer of gold, engraved with a central circle (representing the iris) and gold lines patterned like sun rays. The female remains found with the artificial eye was 1.82 m tall (6 feet), much taller than ordinary women of her time. On both sides of the eye are drilled tiny holes, through which a golden thread could hold the eyeball in place. Since microscopic research has shown that the eye socket showed clear imprints of the golden thread, the eyeball must have been worn during her lifetime. The woman's skeleton has been dated to between 2900 and 2800 BCE.
“Ancient Mesopotamia, corresponding to modern-day Iraq, Kuwait and north eastern Iran, is widely considered to be the cradle of western civilization,” New Historian’s Adam Steedman Thake writes.
“If it is the case that the Burnt City had developed free from Mesopotamian influence, it could mean that the early urban era was a lot more metropolitan than previously thought. If Mesopotamia was simply one of many city-based civilizations from 5,000 years ago, we will need to rethink the origins of our urban living.”
Recent excavations also uncovered ruins of a structure in an urban part of the Burnt City. The structure has two walls, each about a yard (1 meter) thick and is supported by nine buttresses.
“The signs of fire are clearly seen in some rooms of the building,” Sajjadi said. The team had found a small adjoining room in the building. The room had pieces of colored (sic) and plain textiles. The smaller chamber may have been used as a place for conducting sacrifices, scholars speculate, and the textiles may have contained offerings.
Other objects found at the site include a human skull which indicates the practice of brain surgery
Uruk gave its name to the Uruk period, the protohistoric Chalcolithic to Early Bronze Age period in the history of Mesopotamia spanning c. 4000 to 3100 BC, succeeded by the Jemdet Nasr period of Sumer proper