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From single cells to multicellular life: Researchers capture the emergence of multicellular life in

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posted on Nov, 9 2014 @ 06:37 PM
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All multicellular creatures are descended from single-celled organisms. The leap from unicellularity to multicellularity is possible only if the originally independent cells collaborate. So-called cheating cells that exploit the cooperation of others are considered a major obstacle. Scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology in Plön, Germany, together with researchers from New Zealand and the USA, have observed in real time the evolution of simple self-reproducing groups of cells from previously individual cells. The nascent organisms are comprised of a single tissue dedicated to acquiring oxygen, but this tissue also generates cells that are the seeds of future generations: a reproductive division of labour. Intriguingly, the cells that serve as a germ line were derived from cheating cells whose destructive effects were tamed by integration into a life cycle that allowed groups to reproduce. The life cycle turned out to be a spectacular gift to evolution. Rather than working directly on cells, evolution was able to work on a developmental programme that eventually merged cells into a single organism. When this happened groups began to prosper with the once free-living cells coming to work for the good of the whole.

Single bacterial cells of Pseudomonas fluorescens usually live independently of each other. However, some mutations allow cells to produce adhesive glues that cause cells to remain stuck together after cell division. Under appropriate ecological conditions, the cellular assemblies can be favoured by natural selection, despite a cost to individual cells that produce the glues. When Pseudomonas fluorescens is grown in unshaken test tubes the cellular collectives prosper because they form mats at the surface of liquids where the cells gain access to oxygen that is otherwise -- in the liquid -- unavailable.

From single cells to multicellular life: Researchers capture the emergence of multicellular life in real-time experiments

The researchers found that when cheats were part of the life cycle, the fitness of cellular collectives decoupled from that of the individual cells: that is, the most fit mats consisted of cells with relatively low individual fitness. The selfish interests of individual cells in these collectives appear to have been conquered by natural selection working at the level of mats: individual cells ended up working for the common good. The resulting mats were thus more than a casual association of multiple cells. Instead, they developed into a new kind of biological entity -- a multicellular organism whose fitness can no longer be explained by the fitness of the individual cells that comprise the collective

From this study they concluded that life cycles consisting of two phases are surprisingly similar to the life cycles of most multicellular organisms that we know today. It is even possible that germ-line cells, i.e. egg and sperm cells, may have emerged during the course of evolution from such selfish cheating cells




posted on Nov, 9 2014 @ 08:11 PM
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Interesting - I had always wondered how life made that leap and this goes some way to explaining it..

Nice find



posted on Nov, 9 2014 @ 09:45 PM
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How the first cell membrane encapsulated the engine...?Where did this cellular membrane ...



posted on Nov, 9 2014 @ 10:02 PM
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The membrane is where the mystery begins.



posted on Nov, 9 2014 @ 10:06 PM
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originally posted by: jkeyes
How the first cell membrane encapsulated the engine...?Where did this cellular membrane ...


So far we've got:

raw elements in water + lightning leads to the formation of amino acids

amino acids will combine together to form random short sequences of RNA

eventually these short sequences of RNA will form into simple enzymes that can cut up other bits of RNA that aren't duplicates of themselves. This extends on for some chains that are as long as 100 base pairs.

In theory then, there should be stages where those bits of RNA figure out it's better to build a geodesic structure to protect themselves, prevent any "predators" from chopping them up, but allowing shorter chains in so that they can be processed.

Then there should be a move to safeguarding that genetic information from mutation by using DNA, a nucleus and various read/write protocols.



posted on Nov, 9 2014 @ 10:44 PM
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The chain "thinks" a geodetic sphere into existence t o protect it's internal mechanisms.This has always made,me wonder and have yet to understand.Without the membrane,no cell.What is the membrane made of?



posted on Nov, 9 2014 @ 10:54 PM
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a reply to: stormcell

raw elements in water + lightning leads to the formation of amino acids
Maybe. But amino acids have been found in meteorites as well as strong indications that they exist in free space.


In theory then, there should be stages where those bits of RNA figure out it's better to build a geodesic structure to protect themselves, prevent any "predators" from chopping them up, but allowing shorter chains in so that they can be processe
RNA doesn't think. Neither, for that matter, does DNA.



Then there should be a move to safeguarding that genetic information from mutation by using DNA, a nucleus and various read/write protocols.
Yup, but life is a more effective method of reproducing DNA and mutation enables life to change. And, since environments change, life that changes has a better chance a surviving than life that doesn't.



posted on Nov, 9 2014 @ 11:03 PM
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Correct,the chain does not think .What generates the membrane?



posted on Nov, 9 2014 @ 11:05 PM
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a reply to: jkeyes
I don't know.
But I bet you do.



posted on Nov, 9 2014 @ 11:13 PM
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a reply to: jkeyes

The membrane is composed of a semipermeable cytoplasmic lipid to put it in overly simplistic terms.



posted on Nov, 9 2014 @ 11:13 PM
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originally posted by: Phage
a reply to: stormcell


RNA doesn't think. Neither, for that matter, does DNA.



I believe that's an antiquated concept, Phage.
I think that RNA/DNA contain the very essence of cosmic intelligence and represent the basis of consciousness.
Therefore they 'think'.

Je pense, donc je suis.



posted on Nov, 10 2014 @ 02:21 AM
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originally posted by: stormcell

raw elements in water + lightning leads to the formation of amino acids

amino acids will combine together to form random short sequences of RNA

This theory is impossible as it creates a 50-50 mix of left handed and right handed amino acids. Life requires 100% of only one type, which is a mathematical impossibility in this way. The only process that can work is one that only produces right handed or left handed amino acids. Such a process is unknown at this time.



posted on Nov, 10 2014 @ 02:37 AM
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originally posted by: OccamsRazor04

originally posted by: stormcell

raw elements in water + lightning leads to the formation of amino acids

amino acids will combine together to form random short sequences of RNA

This theory is impossible as it creates a 50-50 mix of left handed and right handed amino acids. Life requires 100% of only one type, which is a mathematical impossibility in this way. The only process that can work is one that only produces right handed or left handed amino acids. Such a process is unknown at this time.


The left hand amino acids control the right handed amino acids through misinformation and propaganda. As above, so below.



posted on Nov, 10 2014 @ 05:09 AM
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a reply to: Rosinitiate

Everyone knows the right hands are in control now!



posted on Nov, 10 2014 @ 05:56 AM
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a reply to: peter vlar


The membrane is composed of a semipermeable cytoplasmic lipid to put it in overly simplistic terms.

I'll see your oversimplification and raise you something that makes it even simpler -- phospholipids, like other surfactants, will spontaneously arrange into micelles, liposomes, etc. once a particular concentration is reached. Surfactants are neat!



posted on Nov, 10 2014 @ 06:10 AM
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a reply to: iterationzero

Too early in the morning for so many polysyllabic words trying to enter peoples craniums. Over simplified my arse haha



posted on Nov, 10 2014 @ 11:43 AM
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originally posted by: Phage
a reply to: stormcell

raw elements in water + lightning leads to the formation of amino acids
Maybe. But amino acids have been found in meteorites as well as strong indications that they exist in free space.


In theory then, there should be stages where those bits of RNA figure out it's better to build a geodesic structure to protect themselves, prevent any "predators" from chopping them up, but allowing shorter chains in so that they can be processe
RNA doesn't think. Neither, for that matter, does DNA.



Then there should be a move to safeguarding that genetic information from mutation by using DNA, a nucleus and various read/write protocols.
Yup, but life is a more effective method of reproducing DNA and mutation enables life to change. And, since environments change, life that changes has a better chance a surviving than life that doesn't.


at some point we are going to have to handle the fact that origin of life may not answer origin of consciousness.



posted on Nov, 10 2014 @ 12:41 PM
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originally posted by: iterationzero
Surfactants are neat!


Hey you can't spell Surfactants without FACT! Where's Aleph Bet? How did he miss this obvious fact of life?



posted on Nov, 10 2014 @ 04:21 PM
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a reply to: OccamsRazor04
You are wrong. Chirality effects favor right handed sequences. Probability predicts novel outcomes. Statistically r-handed proteins would have the greater chance of reproducing. Domination in numbers would then result in diminishing groups of 'wrong' proteins. Somehow this has caused sugars/saccharides to be left handed.
Pretty neat stuff this.

www.nytimes.com...

The religious, afflicted with belief systems that transcend everything else, like facts, utilize falsities couched in the proper scientific jargon, to dispute this. They are determined that chemical reactions are uniformly fifty-fifty.

www.allaboutscience.org...

I'm not sure why this would not induce you to believe in a a 'grand decider' or not but do not be mislead. A handedness is displayed at every level. Nothing is arbitrary, nearly everything is possible, in a statistical Universe.



posted on Nov, 10 2014 @ 04:27 PM
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a reply to: Sabiduria

The cells did not magically organize into higher like forms by themselves but with help from the lab personnel so it sounds like intelligent design to me.



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