posted on Feb, 19 2013 @ 10:27 PM
Hello ATS im not sure if this was posted around!
February 19, 2013
by Ashley Wilson
The discovery of Broca’s area in the brain was a major leap in the world of science, shifting the paradigm to the way we study the brain today.
Broca’s area is the area in the brain that controls the motor movements to produce speech. In contrast, Wernicke’s area is the area responsible
for understanding and analyzing speech. Pierre Paul Broca is the one credited with discovering the localized areal of the brain the produces
language. However, he wasn’t the first one to come up with the idea. It was actually the founder of phrenology, Franz Joseph Gall, that first
believed the area of the brain that produced speech was located in the anterior lobes. Phrenology is a pseudoscience where the bumps on the skull were
felt to determine one’s personality traits or intelligence.
Many in the science world were skeptical because of the case of Phineas Gage. Gage was a railroad worker who had an accident involving a tamping iron
penetrating his skull and causing severe frontal lobe damage. Despite the damage, Gage was able to maintain his ability to speak. It wasn’t until
Ernest Aubertin presented his data associating the inability to speak (also known as aphasia) and frontal lobes that Broca and other members of the
science community became interested in the theory of a region in the brain localized to speech. Aubertin was so confident that aphasia was somehow
caused by frontal lobe damage, he offered 500 francs to anyone who could find an aphasic patient without frontal lobe damage and that he would
renounce his views if such a patient was found.
Broca accepted the challenge and that was when he met his first aphasic patient Monsieur Louis Leborgne, or “Tan” as he was known at the time
because it was the only word he could say. Leborgne was a craftsman and a church keeper who was epileptic as a child. He was hospitalized when he
lost his ability to speak. Some historians say it was syphilis that caused the damage to the brain that enabled him to speak.
While in the hospital, his condition severely worsened. The damage to his brain had caused right-sided paralysis so he was bed-ridden. He was also
undergoing surgery for gangrene. He was on his death bed when he met Broca and died six days later."
The evidence of local areas of the brain governing function was an important discovery because at the time it was widely believed that both sides
of an organ do the same things, such as the two lungs and two kidneys. The two hemispheres of the brain should be no different. After the discovery,
it opened up a possibility that the two hemispheres can do different functions.
Broca immediately did an autopsy and discovered damage to the left hemisphere of the frontal lobe. Gall’s and Aubertin’s theory, it seemed, had
been correct. This finding was important because it was the solid proof of localization of brain functions. Broca began studying other aphasic
patients and found similar results: a lesion on the left hemisphere of the frontal lobe. Broca became an avid supporter of the localization of
function in the brain but emphasized that his theory was different from those of phrenologists. In response to the strange case of Phineas Gage, Broca
theorized that for right-handed people the localization of speech in the brain was often in the left-hemisphere, while for left-handed people, which
are the minority, localization of speech could sometimes reside in the right-hemisphere. He also theorized that if damage had occurred in the left
hemisphere at an early age, the localization of speech could develop in the right-hemisphere using neuronal plasticity.
I thought this was an interesting artical newly posted. More conclusive evidence the frontal lobs play a key part in what functions with the left and
right brain. For the most part it was speculation but further research is digging deeper into these phenomenon. Such causes of cross lateral dominance
can occure in many cases and instances As to narrowing down one specific outcome of what creates these dominances be it damage or testosterone or
mutation. We simply don't have all the pieces together. But This does bring up the point that damage can cause different localization centers to fail.
Very interesting. As to narrowing it down with a parallel sister organ. I say that in my theory the brain has 2 of both in each side. I just think its
located in different parts we have yet to realize. But the dominant lob also would play a part in if the brain is inverted or not. That might explain
a little why right handers hair spirles in such a weird direction opposed to mine * lol just a joke* Its interesting how the inversion is there tho.
Spirals on the head like the golden ratio. The universe is wonderful, how much we are learning about ourselves. All of us are unique from each other.
We are closely seeing how these variations. Such as me writing with my left hand. Can be coded skin deep. The same goes for right handers, Who do not
deny their other hand. I love both my hands. Hands are good.
edit on 19-2-2013 by CrypticSouthpaw because: (no reason
edit on 19-2-2013 by CrypticSouthpaw because: (no reason given)