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The short-haired bumblebee was once widespread across the south of England but it vanished in 1988.
However, after a healthy stock of the bees was found in Sweden, conservationists were able to collect some to seed a new UK colony.
About 50 queen bumblebees are being released at the RSPB's Dungeness reserve in Kent.
Nikki Gammans, from the Short-haired Bumblebee Project, said: "Normally, extinction means a species is gone forever.
"But it is magnificent that we can bring back this bee species and give it a second chance here in the UK."